Glossary skill development

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AASSC - Aerospace and Aviation Sector Skill Council is a top body in skill development in the emerging Aerospace and Aviation sector. AASSC has been formed under the Government and Industry led initiative to skill Indian labour force. AASSC is one of the various Sector Skill Councils (SSC) which has been established with the help of grant from National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). NSDC provides support to all SSCs during the initial years of operations in the form of grant. The vision of Aerospace and Aviation Sector Skill Council is to reduce the gap between demand and supply of skilled manpower in the sector in segments like Design & Development, Aerospace Manufacturing, Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO), Airline Operations and Airports. Learn more:

ABILITIES - Ability refers to the mental or physical power or skill needed to do something.It is a natural or acquired capacity or talent that makes an individual to perform a particular job or task successfully. Learn more: wiki/Ability

Acumen was established in 2001 by a 25 year old banker named Jacqueline Novogratz Acumen (formerly known as Acumen Fund ,it is a non-profit impact investment fund with almost 15 years’ experience in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) that serve low-income communities in developing countries primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Acumen brings a venture capital sensibility to aid work. It’s main goal is to demonstrate that small amounts of philanthropic capital, combined with large doses of business acumen can result in thriving enterprises that help vast numbers of the poor. Acumen's philosophy is that a bigger impact can be made on poverty by giving people the opportunity to earn their living by investing in goods, structure and human capital rather than straightforward philanthropy. This foresight evolves into investing in companies whose products and services enable the poor to transform their lives, people who have the ability to lead and ideas that innovate and accelerate solutions to poverty. Learn more:

AICTE -The All India Council for Technical Education is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.Well established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 was given statutory status by an Act of Parliament . AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technical education and management education system in India. The AICTE certified postgraduate and graduate programs under specific categories at Indian institutions as per its charter enterprise (SME) sector is well recognized in academic and policy literature. It also acknowledged that these actors in the economy may be under-served, especially in terms of finance. This has prompted to significant debate on the best methods to serve this sector. Learn more:

AMHFSSC -Apparel, Made-Ups & Home Furnishing Sector Skill Council has been launched with the main aim of enhancing and to build a capacity in skill development. One of the important features of the AMHFSSC is designing the training programmes, based on industry demands of different segments and to ensure that all successful trainees are certified through accredited assessment agency. AMHFSSC has been authorized by NSDC for evolving assessing proficiencies of skills of trainees for the apparel sector, made-ups and home furnishing for their respective subject areas. Learn more:


Apprenticeship - Optional Trade
Apprenticeship - Optional Trade Learn more:

ASCI- Agriculture Skill Council of India (ASCI) ,comes under Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) ,Government of India. ASCI aims to skill people in agriculture and allied sectors under the aegis of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) and other schemes of government of India.ASCI aims to bridge gaps and upgrade skills of wage workers,farmers,self-employed and extension workers who are in organized and unorganized segments of Agriculture and allied sectors.This is implemented through a network of training partners.Farm Mechanization and Precision Farming, Agri-Information Management, Dairy Farm Management, Poultry Farm Management, Fisheries, Animal Husbandry etc are some of the job roles covered by ASCI for skilling people. Learn more:

ASDC - Automotive Skill Development Council ASDC has taken innovative steps towards development of Occupational Standards. For this goal ,ASDC has been engaging the entire Automotive Industry.Our purpose is to make skills as enabler of our sector's growth. Automotive Skills Development Council (ASDC) has got the distinction of being the first Sector Skill Council of India. ASDC was incorporated to make the nation self-sufficient in skilled manpower in Automotive Industry. ASDC intention was to skill and certify 25 million youth in a period of next 10 years. Automotive Skills Development Council is a joint initiative of Government of India, Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM), Automotive Component Manufacturers Association (ACMA) and Federation of Automobile Dealers Association (FADA). Learn more:

AsHA -The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) launched the “Aspirational Hunar Abhiyan 2018-19″ on 10th October 2018 .This initiative is designed to complement the program of NITI Aayog by addressing the challenges of skill development at the district level. The highlights of Aspirational Hunar Abhiyan 2018-19 is to complement “Transformation of Aspirational Districts” Program of NITI Aayog.Skill Index will be developed to bring in healthy competition between the districts.The Abhiyan's first meeting of nodal officers, saw the induction of these officials who will be steering the program in close coordination with the district entities.Among many other key initiatives which ministry has taken since its inception, Aspirational Hunar Abhiyan (AsHA) is one of the pioneer-step to reach out to the masses and address the real time challenges faced at the ground level in the aspirational districts. Learn more:

Atal Incubation Center
Atal Incubation Center -The Government of India has set up the Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) at NITI Aayog. The overall purpose of this Mission is to promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship in India. The project is being implemented by NITI Aayog.The plan of the scheme is to promote and establish world class incubation centres in specific sectors such as manufacturing, transport, energy, health, education, agriculture, water and sanitation etc. in India. These incubation centres would support and encourage innovative technology based start - ups that have an application or impact the core sectors of the economy. The incubation centres would give the start - ups with necessary guidance , tech support, infrastructure, access to investors, networking, and facilitating a host of other resources that may be required for the startup to survive and scale.

ATAL Tinkering Labs
ATAL Tinkering Labs -ATL is an avenue of Central government of India to create an environment of scientific temperament, innovation, creativity amongst Indian Students. It is a stride towards a new India.Since the last few decades, our education system has seen a basic change in ideas or methods . Today, with this approach of inculcating Hands on Methodology in the current education scenario we have resolved the need of the hour ATL lab would educate students essential 21st-century skills which will help them in developing their professional and personal skills.

ATDC- Apparel Training & Design Centre (ATDC), under the aegis of AEPC has emerged as India’s Largest Vocational Training Network for the Apparel Sector with around 175 ATDCs including 65 ATDC Vocational Institutes and over 135 ATDC- SMART Centres and Skill Camps present in major Apparel clusters spread across 22 states & 85 cities Pan India.Learn more:

ATI - The National Skill Training Institute ( Formerly Known as Advanced Training Institute) is a field unit of the Directorate General of Training, Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Government of India. Earlier the training was confined to Craft Instructor Programmes. Subsequently in 1967. The aim of the program was to develop skilled manpower for the Industries, instructional staff for the Industrial Training Institutes & Upgrading Skill in the service industry. The mission and vision of NSTI is to impact Quality Training & Upgrading Skills of the Industrial workforce in emerging areas. Another important objective of NSTI is continually making efforts to bridge the gap between industry & academics and to enhance the employability skills of craftsman to enhance the credibility of certification for Craft Instructor Training and to facilitate placement through its placement cell.

B.Voc (Bachelor of Vocation) Degree courses are available in several fields for students who have completed their 12th standard or equivalent. This is largely targeted towards youth who want to enhance their employability opportunities to learn, earn and grow. The advantage of these courses is that as against common Degree courses like Engineering or B.Com or B.Sc, here you have multiple exit points and continued exposure to industry. The work experience increases your chances of landing a job. You may also find innovative, trendy and new areas of expertise that match with your interests and job aspirations. The B.Voc. programmes are offered by universities and colleges alongside other undergraduate (UG) courses. However, unlike the traditional UG courses, B.Voc curriculum is often mapped with job role descriptions as per National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF). Since the curriculum is industry and work-integrated and for some reason, if you are unable to complete the 3-year program, you can still obtain a Diploma and and Advanced Diploma (or equivalent) after completion of the first and second years respectively. Hence, your knowledge and skills are valued at every level and you will be qualified for a suitable job, as per market requirements. You can even explore becoming an entrepreneur in your domain! Learn more:

B2B - Business-to-business (B2B or, in some countries, BtoB) is a situation where one business makes a commercial transaction with another.Business to business, also called B to B or B2B, is a form of transaction between businesses, such as one involving a manufacturer and wholesaler, or a wholesaler and a retailer. Business to business refers to business that is conducted between companies, rather than between a company and individual consumers. Business-to-business transactions are common in a typical supply chain, as companies purchase components and products such as other raw materials for use in the manufacturing processes. Finished products can then be sold to individuals via business-to-consumer transactions. Learn more:

B2C - Business to consumer (B2C) refers to the transactions conducted directly between a company and consumers who are the end-users of its products or services. While most companies that sell directly to consumers can be referred to as B2C companies, the term became immensely popular during the dotcom boom of the late 1990s, when it was used mainly to refer to online retailers, as well as other companies that sold products and services to consumers through the internet.Business to consumer (B2C) is among the most popular and widely known of sales models.Traditionally, B2C referred to mall shopping, eating out at restaurants, pay-per-view and infomercials. However, the rise of the internet created a whole new B2C business channel in the form of e-commerce or selling goods and services over the internet.Businesses that rely on B2C sales must maintain good relations with their customers to ensure they come back.

B2G - Business-to-government (B2G) or business-to-administration (B2A) is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of "public sector marketing" which encompasses marketing products and services to various government levels through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marketing communications (marcom), advertising, and web-based communications.B2G networks provide a platform for businesses to bid on government opportunities which are presented as solicitations in the form of request for proposals (RFPs) in a reverse auction fashion. Public sector organizations (PSOs) generally post tenders in the form of RFPs, request for information (RFI), request for quotations (RFQs), Sources Sought and suppliers respond to them.Business-to-government or B2G refers to business conducted between private sector firms and governments.An example of a business-to-government service would be a small business' providing IT consulting to a local government agency. The B2G category covers contracts of all sorts – for goods, services and information – between businesses of all sizes and government at all levels (state, local and federal). Learn more:

BFSI -The Banking Financial Services Insurance integrates leading organizations of the BFSI industry to create strategic and operational plans in order to set up standardized skill requirements for the various job roles in the industry.Also,accreditation will be provided to well equipped service providers who can partner to disseminate the training.BFSI strives to enhance the existing vocational education system in meeting the entire value chain requirements of appropriately trained manpower in quantity and quality across all levels. Learn more:

BIBB - Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training-Germany is recognized as a center for high standards for vocational research and for the progressive development of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Germany.BIBB works to identify future challenges in VET, stimulate innovation in national and international vocational systems, and develop new, practice-oriented solutions for both initial and continuing vocational education and training.BIBB was established in 1970 on the basis of the Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz, BBiG) as a federal government institution for policy, research and practice in the field of vocational education and training.Company is technologically, economically oriented and always focuses on social changes because of constant challenges to maintain a high reputation and awareness requires highly qualified skilled workforce. In Germany, the structural foundation for these qualifications is the dual system of initial vocational training and company-based continuing vocational training. At the same time, a dual system program of initial vocational training lays the foundation for lifelong learning. Both initial and continuing vocational education and training are investments in the future. Learn more:

BLENDED LEARNING -Blended learning is an approach to education that combines online educational materials and opportunities for interacting online with traditional place-based classroom methods. It requires the physical presence of both teacher and student, with some elements of student control over time, place, path, or pace. While students still attend "brick-and-mortar" schools with a teacher present, face-to-face classroom practices are combined with computer-mediated activities regarding content and delivery. Blended learning is also used in professional development and training settings.Blended learning" is sometimes used in the same breath as "personalized learning" and differentiated instruction.The terms "blended learning", "hybrid learning", "technology-mediated instruction", "web-enhanced instruction", and "mixed-mode instruction" are often used interchangeably in research literature. Learn more:

Blue collar
Blue collar - In many countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor. Blue-collar work may involve skilled or unskilled manufacturing, mining, sanitation, custodial work, textile manufacturing, commercial fishing, food processing, oil field work, waste disposal, and recycling, construction, mechanic, maintenance, warehousing, technical installation, and many other types of physical work. Blue-collar work often involves something being physically built or maintained.Blue-collar work is often paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a wide range of pay scales for such work depending upon field of specialty and experience. Learn more:

BTP (Basic Training Provider) -Basic training consists of theoretical and practical instructions relating to the trade in which on-the-job-training is to be imparted. It is mandatory for those who have not done any formal training in an ITI or in those courses under PMKVY/MES which have been granted equivalence with basic training.The duration of basic training is 1/5th to 1/4th of the overall duration of apprenticeship training. Remaining period will be utilised for on-the-job-training component.Basic training can be done in Basic Training Centres (BTC) which can be set up by the industry/employer where on-the-job-training is to be given, provided the industry/employer has the required facilities/infrastructure for providing basic training. All such BTCs will have to go through a verification process before being designated as a BTC.It can also be provided in government or private industrial training institutes ITIs provided they have spare seats (within overall affiliation) for running basic training.It can also be imparted in BTCs set up/supported by Industry clusters. Learn more:

BWSSC - Beauty and Wellness Sector Skill Council (BWSSC) is a non-profit organization established under NSDC to promote skill development in the Beauty & Wellness Industry. Beauty & Wellness sector has a growing market but has a shortage of manpower. To overcome this shortage, BWSSC aims to train & certify manpower, train trainers and accredit training partners in the next 10 years. Beauty and Wellness Sector Skill Council is doing its best for benchmarking Indian beauty and wellness education with international standards. B&W SSC are conducting industry and market studies to determine the skill gap in key segments in the Beauty and Wellness industry on an on-going basis, development of occupations/skills catalogue and occupational standards, creating awareness about the Beauty and Wellness industry . Learn more:

CAPEX Capital expenditure or capital expense (capex or CAPEX) is the money a company spends to buy, maintain, or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings, vehicles, equipment, or land.It is considered a capital expenditure when the asset is newly purchased or when money is used towards extending the useful life of an existing asset, such as repairing the roof.Capital expenditures contrast with operating expenses (opex), which are ongoing expenses that are inherent to the operation of the asset. Opex includes items like electricity or cleaning. The difference between opex and capex may not be immediately obvious for some expenses; for instance, repaving the parking lot may be thought of inherent to the operation of a shopping mall. The dividing line for items like these is that the expense is considered capex if the financial benefit of the expenditure extends beyond the current fiscal year .Capital expenditures are the funds used to acquire or upgrade a company's fixed assets, such as expenditures towards property, plant, or equipment (PP&E). Learn more:

CBCS - University Grants Commission has come up with the Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) programme in which the students have a choice to choose from the prescribed courses, which are referred as core, elective or minor or soft skill courses and they can learn at their own pace and the entire assessment is graded-based on a credit system. The basic idea is to look into the needs of the students so as to keep up-to-date with development of higher education in India and abroad. CBCS aims to redefine the curriculum keeping pace with the liberalisation and globalisation in education. CBCS allows students an easy mode of mobility to various educational institutions spread across the world along with the facility of transfer of credits earned by students.

CBSE -The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is a national level board of education in India for public and private schools, controlled and managed by the Union Government of India. CBSE has asked all schools affiliated to follow only NCERT curriculum. There are approximately 19,316 schools in India and 211 schools in 25 foreign countries affiliated to the CBSE.CBSE affiliates all Kendriya Vidyalayas, all Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas, private schools and most of the schools approved by central government of India.On 10 November 2017, Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, cleared a proposal for creation of a National Testing Agency (NTA) which will conduct various entrance examinations. Currently, Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts Joint Engineering Entrance (JEE) Exam, National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), Central Teacher Eligibility Test (twice a year) UGC’s National Eligibility Test (twice a year) and the entrance test for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas.

CGSC - Capital Goods Skill Council plays a proactive role in reducing the gap by creating a setting for quality training and skill development for the Capital Goods sector. CGSC is a Non Profit Organization, registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860. The Council has been promoted by Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and Department of Heavy industries (DHI), Government of India, with financial support from National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).The objective of establishing CGSC is to ensure that the Capital Goods industry is able to grow with skilled manpower, increase productivity and profitability. The mandate of CGSC is identification of skill development needs including preparing a catalogue of types of skills, range and depth of skills to facilitate individuals to choose from them. Learn more:

CII -The Confederation of Indian Industry is a business association in India.CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organization.CII works with the Government on policy issues. Founded in 1895, in 1995, it began offering customised advisory and consultancy services and training programmes through its "Centres of Excellence". Today, CII has 9 Centres of Excellence across India, each focusing on different aspects to offer services to industry from diverse sectors.The Confederation of Indian Industry CII coordinates with Government, NGOs, and civil society to help industry flourish with effective programs for social development. It provides numerous viewpoints through which representatives can undertake various issues, such as gender equality, micro finance, development of backward districts, HIV/AIDS and public health. Learn more:

COHORT - Cohort refers to a group of people that have some statistical or demographic characteristic in common.The term is commonly used to refer to people who were born at a particular time.However,it can also refer to groups which have any common characteristic such as profession, pay scale, height or geographic location – among many other possibilities. Learn more:

Community Colleges USA
In the United States, community colleges (once commonly called junior colleges), are basically two-year public institutions of tertiary education. Many community colleges also offer remedial education, GEDs, high school degrees, technical degrees and certificates, and a limited number of 4-year degrees. Community colleges offer two-year programs leading to the Associate of Arts (AA) or Associate of Science (AS) degree. These colleges also have technical and vocational programs with close connections to secondary/high schools, community groups, and employers in the local community.Community colleges often lead the United States in educating students in cutting- edge fields such as biomedical technology, biotechnology, robotics, laser optics, internet and computer technologies, and geographic information systems .According to the American Association of Community Colleges there are at present 1,167 community colleges in the United States. Finishing a 2-year degree at a community college is called an associate’s degree.The American education system provides many choices for higher education to international students. There are communities college, colleges, universities, and more. Many international students are not familiar with the American education system and therefore, may not understand what a community college is. Learn more:

Competence - Competence is the demonstrable characteristics that enable performance of a job.For properly doing the job, the individual requires skills and knowledge essential for the set duties. A competency is a set of defined behaviours that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviours in individual employees.Competency is also used as a more general description of the requirements of human beings in organizations and communities.Competency is sometimes thought of as being shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. In emergencies, competent people may react to a situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed. Learn more:

CPSSC- Chemical and Petrochemical Sector Skill Council (proposed) with The Department of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers, Government of India has signed a MoU with Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSD) for skill development in Chemical and Petrochemical Sectors.For Chemical Sector, Institute of Pesticide Formulation Technology (IPFT) has been instructed to impart skill development courses in chemical sector for employed as well as unemployed youths of the country. In this regard DCPC, IPFT along with ICC has identified some courses to be conducted by IPFT. Learn more:

CRITICAL SKILLS Critical skills refers to particular capabilities needed within an occupation, for example, communication and customer handling skills,general management skills,communication technology skills and teamwork skills.Psychologists have figured out certain skills that are critical to succeed in life.This include Reading,Inquiry,Flexible thinking and the use of evidence,Conversation,Collaboration,Engagement and Well-being.Also,the six critical skills that adults and children need to improve include Collaboration,Communication,Content,Critical thinking,Creative innovation and Confidence.

CSDC - Construction Skill Development Council of India was established under the mandate of NSDC to improve the skill quality of manpower in the Construction and Infrastructure Industry. Construction Skill Development Council of India is promoted by Construction Federation of India (CFI), Builders’ Association of India (BAI), National Highways Builders Federation ( HBF) and Confederation of Real Estate Developers Association of India (CREDAI). Construction Skill Development Council of India identifies the skill development needs in the construction sector, develops a skill development plan & maintains the skill inventory to bridge the sector skill gaps & technology. Learn more:

CSR- Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable.By practicing corporate social responsibility, also called corporate citizenship, companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they are having on all aspects of society including economic, social, and environmental. To engage in CSR means that, in the normal course of business, a company is operating in ways that enhance society and the environment, instead of contributing negatively to it.Learn more:

DDU-GKY - Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana is solely focused on rural youth between the ages of 15 and 35 years from poor families. DDU-GKY is a placement-linked Skill Training Initiative of the Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India . As a part of the Skill India Campaign, it plays a leading role in supporting the social and economic programs of the government like the Make In India, Digital India, Smart Cities and Start-Up India, Stand-Up India campaigns. Over 180 million or 69% of the country’s youth population between the ages of 18 and 34 years, live in its rural areas. Of these, the bottom of the pyramid youth from poor families with no or negligible employment number about 55 million.. DDU-GKY works in Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode, wherein it invests in projects proposed by its training partners, facilitates technical support and creates an amiable environment where quality skill training is imparted to rural poor youth. It has developed systems and processes benchmarked with the best in the world to facilitate quality and building capacity needed to scale and achieve its goals. Learn more:

DFID -The Department for International Development (DFID) is a United Kingdom's Government Department responsible for administering overseas aid. The aim of the department is "to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty". DFID is headed by the United Kingdom's Secretary of State for International Development. DFID's main programme areas of work are Education, Health, Social Services, Water Supply and Sanitation, Government and Civil Society, Economic Sector (including Infrastructure, Production Sectors and Developing Planning), Environment Protection, Research, and Humanitarian Assistance. The Overseas Development and Co-operation Act (1980) makes poverty reduction the focus of DFID's work, and effectively outlaws tied aid.

DGT -Directorate General of Training , Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (Erstwhile Ministry of Labour & Employment, Directorate General of Employment and Training (DGE&T)) launched a Modular Employable Skills (MES) under Skill Development Initiative (SDI) Scheme through Directorate General of Employment & Training in May 2007. Under this project , training to earlier school leavers and existing workers especially in a unorganised sector are to be trained for employable skills. A majority of Indian workforce does not have marketable skills which is an obstacle in getting decent employment and improving their economic condition.OBJECTIVE OF THE SCHEME ARE :To provide vocational training to school leavers, existing workers, ITI graduates, improve their employability by optimally utilizing the infrastructure available in Government, private institutions and the Industry. Learn more:

Digital India
Digital India:Digital India is a campaign launched by the Government of India to ensure the Government's services are made available to citizens electronically by improved online infrastructure and by increasing Internet connectivity or by making the country digitally empowered in the field of technology.The initiative includes plans to connect rural areas with high-speed internet networks. Digital India consists of three core components: the development of secure and stable digital infrastructure, delivering government services digitally, and universal digital literacy.Learn more:

DSDP / SSDP - Greater decentralization in skill planning will be ensured by institutional strengthening at the State level which includes setting up of State Skill Development Missions (SSDMs) and allowing states to come up with District and State level Skill Development Plans (DSDP/SSDP) and design skill training interventions to suit the local needs. SANKALP aims at enhancement of inclusion of marginalized communities including women. Scheduled Castes (SCs), Schedule Tribes (STs) and Persons with Disabilities (PWD) to provide skill training opportunities to the underprivileged and marginalised section of the society.

DUAL VET - A dual education system combines apprenticeships in a company and vocational education at a vocational school in one course. This system is practiced in many countries, notably Germany, Austria, and Switzerland but also for some years now in South Korea.In Germany, the dual education system was established after the passage of the Vocational Training Act of 1969, and was significantly enhanced by reforms in 2005. Actually , vocational training was organized by the various guilds through apprenticeships, as their members sought to ensure that they had a talented labour pool to perpetuate their respective industries.As one part of the dual education course, students are trained in a company for three to five days a week. The company is responsible for seeing that students get the standard quantity and quality of training set down in the training descriptions for each trade.The modern times of rapid economic and technological change has expanded the role of the dual education system in the labor force. Increasingly, older workers are making use of the system to gain new skills in the ever evolving labor market. This is known as Continuous Vocational Educational Training, or CVET.

DWSSC - Domestic Workers Sector Skill Council Domestic Workers Sector Skill Council is a non profit company, registered under the Companies Act, 2013 and obtained a license under section 8 of the said Act.The purpose of this SSC is to define key sectors wherein Domestic Workers can find employment and to identify critical roles and associated skill gaps. The SSC’s main aim is to contribute to the creation of a favorable environment for domestic workers,establish a national institutional network for skill development of domestic workers in India,develop a Labor Market Information System (LMIS) that contains information on the profile of domestic workers in India, the market demand and the list of organizations working in the sector. Learn more:

E- LEARNING - E-learning theory describes the cognitive science principles of effective multimedia learning using electronic educational technology.Beginning with cognitive load theory as their motivating scientific premise, researchers such as Richard E. Mayer, John Sweller, and Roxana Moreno established within the scientific literature a set of multimedia instructional design principles that promote effective learning.Many of these principles have been "field tested" in everyday learning settings and found to be effective there as well. The majority of this body of research has been performed using university students given relatively short lessons on technical concepts with which they held low prior knowledge. Learn more:

Employee Welfare
Employee Welfare - Welfare includes anything that is done for the comfort and improvement of employees and is provided over and above the wages. Welfare helps in keeping the morale and motivation of the employees high so as to retain the employees for longer duration. The welfare measures need not to be in monetary terms only but in any kind/forms. Employee welfare includes monitoring of working conditions, creation of industrial harmony through infrastructure for health, industrial relations and insurance against disease, accident and unemployment for the workers and their families.Labor welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries. Labor welfare has the following objectives: To provide better life and health to the workers To make the workers happy and satisfied To relieve workers from industrial fatigue and to improve intellectual, cultural and material conditions of living of the workers.

EMPLOYMENT - Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other is the employee. Employees work in return for payment, which may be in the form of an hourly wage, by piecework or an annual salary, depending on the type of work an employee does or which sector she or he is working in. Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment. Benefits can include health insurance, housing, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws, regulations or legal contracts. Learn more:

EOI - Expression of Interest is a call to potential providers of goods and/or services to register interest in supplying them. Commonly, it is a document describing requirements or specifications and seeking information from potential providers that demonstrate their ability to meet those requirements.It is one of the initial transaction document that shows the interest from the buyer that their company would be interested to pay a certain valuation and acquire the seller's company through a formal offer.

ESG - Environmental, Social and Governance Criteria is a set of norms for a company’s operations that socially conscious investors use to screen potential investments. Environmental criteria looks at how a company performs as a steward of the natural environment. Social criteria reviews how a company manages relationships with its employees, suppliers, customers and the communities where it operates. Governance deals with a company’s leadership, executive pay, audits, internal controls and shareholder rights.refers to the three central factors in measuring the sustainability and ethical impact of an investment in a company or business.These criteria help to better determine the future financial performance of companies (return and risk). Examples of ESG criteria used by investors include determining a company's impact on climate change or carbon emissions, water use or conservation efforts, anti-corruption policies, board diversity, human rights efforts and community development.

ESSCI - Electronics Sector Skill Council of India was established to facilitate skill development in ESDM Industry (Electronics Systems, Design and Manufacturing). ESSCI is a non-profit organization financially aided by National Skill Development Council .The main aim of Electronics Sector Skill Council of India is to establish an effective and efficient ecosystem for developing and imparting of outcome oriented skills for the ESDM industry in India. Among the sector skill councils, Electronics Sector Skills Council of India. (ESSCI) is an important one, as the electronics industry has huge growth potentials in India markets as well as export markets. Electronics touches almost every aspect of our lives today; therefore the skill requirement is obvious. Learn more:

FFSC - Furniture & Fittings Skill Council (FFSC) is a Non-Profit organization, established under societies Registration Act XXI of 1860. The Council has been promoted by CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) with funding from the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).The purpose of the sector skill council is to focus on establishing an effective and efficient eco-system for development and imparting of skills for the Furniture & Fittings industry ,including relevant curriculum, courses, information database, delivery system, standardization, accreditation and certification processes to enhance the employability of the Indian workforce globally.The mandates for FFSC are:Develop a sector skill development plan for the furniture & fittings industry.Plan and execute training of trainers. Ensure delivery of training programs by accredited organizations as per industry norms and standards.The Furniture & Fittings Skill Council is looking at aiming to carrying out pilot training projects in different states based on an Occupational Standards led curriculum and content.Developing career path, skill competency standards and qualifications for upgrading youth/work force at par with the developed countries.

FICCI - The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is an association of business organisations in India. Established in 1927, on the advice of Mahatma Gandhi by GD Birla and Purushottam Das Thakurdas, it is the largest, oldest and the apex business organisation in India. It is a non-government, not-for-profit organisation. FICCI draws its membership from the corporate sector, both private and public. FICCI Millennium alliance aims at supporting and scaling-up low-cost, innovative solutions. It is a joint initiative of FICCI, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India and the United States Agency for International .

FICSI - Food Industry Capacity and Skill Initiative is a society registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860 and is assisted by the Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), under the backing of National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). Food Industry Capacity and Skill Initiative (FICSI) is engaged in the recognition of skill development needs in Food Processing Sector, development of a sector skill development plan and maintenance of a skill inventory, determination of skills/competency standards and qualifications, standardizing affiliation and accreditation process, participating in affiliation, accreditation, examination and certification, planning and executing Training of Trainers, promotion of academics of excellence and establishment of a specific Labour Market Information System (LMIS). Learn more:

Formal Economy
Formal Economy ( organized sector ) - Specific characteristics of the formal economy (1) has an organised system of employment with clear written rules of recruitment, agreement and job responsibilities. (2) has a standardised relationship between the employer and the employee is maintained through a formal contract. (3) the employee is expected to work for fixed hours and receives fixed salaries in addition to incentives and perks. He works under a decent work environment and is entitled to benefits such as leave, savings, loans etc. He has an organised association or union where his official grievances are addressed. Besides, he is covered under social protection benefits such as life insurance, health insurance, pension, gratuity etc.People working in civil service, public sector units, government service, defence, multi-national/national/private companies, schools, colleges, research institutes, management organizations, banks etc.…all belong to the Formal Sector.

GIZ -The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH or GIZ in short (English: German Corporation for International Cooperation GmbH is a German development agency headquartered in Bonn and Eschborn that provides services in the field of international development cooperation .As a service provider in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development and international education work, we are committed to shaping a future worth living around the world.GIZ has more than 50 years of experience in a wide variety of areas, including economic development and employment promotion, energy and the environment, and peace and security.We work with businesses, civil society actors and research institutions, fostering successful interaction between development policy and other policy fields and areas of activity. Our main commissioning party is the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Other global programs supported by GIZ include South-South cooperation, i.e. bilateral cooperation between developing countries and emerging economies, and triangular cooperation between developing countries as beneficiaries, emerging economies as "new donors" and traditional donors, e.g. Germany, as contributors of expertise.

GJSCI - Gem & Jewellery Skill Council of India was established in 2012 under National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).It is currently functioning under the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE). Gem & Jewellery Skill Council of India (GJSCI) is the nodal entity for skill development of the Indian Gems & Jewellery industry.It covers skilling under all areas and functions of the industry such as diamond processing, colored gemstone processing, jewellery manufacturing etc.The mission of this scheme is to to identify skill development needs in the Gem and Jewellery Sector in India and create an organized training and development ecosystem to produce skilled workforce at par with global quality standards.GJSCI determine skills standards and develop curriculum as per world Industry standards by creating National Occupational Standards (NOS) for every job role prevailing in the Gem & Jewellery Industry.It also initiates Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) across India to Recognize the Prior Learning of artisans and provide them with suitable opportunities. Learn more:

HCCSSC - Handicrafts and Carpet Sector Skill Council is an organization registered under Societies Act of 1860. This Sector Skill Council was established in January 2014. The organization has been set up as per the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model defined by the Government of India in 2011. HCSSC is the top body for skill development in Handicrafts and Carpet sector. HCSSC is the organization accountable for skill development of the overall Handicrafts and Carpet sector.The objectives are : Creating skill development plan for the Handicrafts and Carpet sector,Developing skill competency based on qualifications and standards,Developing Labour Market Information System (LMIS) for the Handicrafts and Carpet sector,Improving training delivery and promotion of academies of excellence.

HECI -The Centre has decided to establish a Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) in place of the University Grants Commission (UGC). A draft of Higher Education Commission of India (Repeal of University Grants Commission Act) Bill, 2018, is being circulated among stakeholders to invite suggestions.Lauded as a key reform in higher education sector, the Bill if passed by the Parliament, will separate the academic and funding aspects of the sector.Here are the important differences between the proposed Higher Education Commission of India from the present University Grants Commission:Financial powers UGC: It dispenses grants to Central institutions out of its funds HECI: It will not have any financial powers. The budgeting will be taken care by Union HRD Ministry.Academic powersUGC: It is mandated to promote and coordinate university education and determine and maintain standards of teaching, examination and research.

HSSC - HydroCarbon Sector Skill Council (Oil and Gas) with the National Skill Mission of India, Hydrocarbon Sector Skill Council for the Oil & Gas Sector has been set up with the help of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) .Its main objective is to implement skill development activities in Indian Hydrocarbon Sector and meeting the entire value chain requirement of appropriately trained manpower in quantity and quality on a sustained and evolving basis. The HSSC has been set up under the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, in accordance with the guidelines of National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The object of skill development is to train people in the hydrocarbon sector. It has been registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 . It plans to do so through development of a skill plan for the sector by identifying the skill need, review international trends and identify sector skill gap and technology, develop National Occupational Standard (NOS’s) for the job roles for covering the entire sector & sub-sector.

IASC - Instrumentation Automation Surveillance & Communication Sector Skill Council is an Autonomous Industry .It’s a Non- Profit Organization under the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, Government of India. IASC SSC’s role is to pinpoint and develop Skill Manpower Development Plan for the Instrumentation, Automation, Surveillance and Communication sectors,certify Skilled Manpower under NSQF,identify & accredit Training Providers & Assessors for the various courses.The main objectives are to empower existing manpower by certification under Recognition of Prior Learning Scheme,undertake Skill Gap analysis, manpower mapping and research and development of robust Human Capital Market Information Systems. Learn more:

ICAR -The Indian Council of Agricultural Research is an autonomous body responsible for coordinating agricultural education and research in India.It is the largest network of agricultural research and education institutes in the world.Milestones: As of July, 2006 it has developed a vaccine against bird flu. The vaccine was developed at the High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, Bhopal, the only facility in the country to conduct tests for the H5N1 variant of bird flu.It was entrusted with the task of developing a vaccine by the ICAR after the Avian Influenza outbreak in February. The ICAR was provided Rs. 8 crore for the purpose. Learn more:

ICRISAT - The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) is an international organization which conducts agricultural research for rural development, headquartered in Patancheru (Hyderabad, Telangana, India).Since its inception, host country India has granted a special status to ICRISAT as a UN Organization operating in the Indian territory making it eligible for special immunities and tax privileges.CRISAT adopts Integrated genetic and natural resources management as its overarching research strategy. The aim is to combine tested methods of crop commodity research with well established practices in research in natural resources management. The original goal was to use crop improvement research as the basis to improve food availability in drought-prone areas of the tropics. In the last ten years, ICRISAT research, especially in India, China, the Philippines and Vietnam, has tended to emphasise creation and sustenance of rural livelihoods in addition to releasing crop varieties that yield better. Learn more:

ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management. Learn more:

IIS Indian Institute of Skills - To augment the global competitiveness of key sectors of Indian economy,Government of India has approved a scheme for setting up of Indian Institute of Skills (IISs) at different locations across the country in public private partnership (PPP). IISs will provide opportunity to aspiring youth across the country to have access to highly skilled training, applied research and education and enhance the scope of accountability through its linkage with industry and global competitiveness across sectors. Learn more:

IISC - India International Skill Centre was set-up through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and implements skill training programmes under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) and Pravasi Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PKVY).This was established for assisting young people who search for global mobility for jobs. IISC has already set-up 15 centres in the country and is planning to establish 50 more centres.IISC offers training and certification programmes to those people who intends to opt overseas jobs.This is a fruitful initiative in the Skills Sector as this will manage the global labour shortage problems in a huge manner. Also, government will be able to create a group of skilled people who could leverage the overseas employment options.

IISSSC - Indian Iron and Steel Sector Skill Council is a (Iron & Steel, Re Rolling, Sponge Iron units, Ferro Alloys, Steel Construction and Welding) non-profit organization established under the Indian Companies Act, 1956. IISSSC is developed by Institute for Steel Development & Growth (INSDAG) and Bengal Chambers of Commerce & Industry (BCCI) and mandated under National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). IISSSC is dedicated to develop world class skilled manpower for the Iron & Steel Industry. Learn more:

ILO - The International Labour Organization (ILO), which will mark its centenary in 2019, is a United Nations organisation dealing with labour issues, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all. The International Labour Organization has developed a system of international labour standards aimed at promoting opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. India, a Founding Member of the ILO, has been a permanent member of the ILO Governing Body since 1922. The first ILO Office in India started in 1928.

Impact Assessment
Impact Assessment - Policy Impact Assessments (IAs) are formal, evidence-based procedures that assess the economic, social, and environmental effects of public policy.[1] They have been incorporated into policy making in the OECD countries and the European Commission. Key types of impact assessments include global assessments (global level), policy impact assessment (policy level), strategic environmental assessment (programme and plan level), and environmental impact assessment (project level). Impact assessments can focus on specific themes, such as social impact assessments and gender impact assessments. Learn more:

Impact Investing
Impact investing's main objective is to generate specific beneficial social or environmental effects in addition to monetary gain.The term "impact investing" was first coined in 2007, although the application developed over the years beforehand. The primary goal of impact investing is to help reduce the negative effects of business activity on the social environment, and it can be considered as an extension of philanthropy. Impact investing is a subgroup of socially responsible investing (SRI), but while the definition of socially responsible investing encompasses avoidance of harm, impact investing actively seeks to make a positive impact by investing, for example, in nonprofits that avail the community or in clean technology enterprises.Impact investors actively seek to place capital in businesses, nonprofits, and funds in industries such as renewable energy, basic services including housing, healthcare, and education, microfinance, and sustainable agriculture.

Industrial Relations
Industrial relations or employment relations is the multidisciplinary academic field that studies the employment relationship; that is, the intricate interrelations between employers and employees, labour/trade unions, employer organizations and the state.The newer name, "employment relations" is increasingly taking precedence because "industrial relations" is often seen to have relatively narrow connotations. Nevertheless, Industrial Relations has often been concerned with employment relationships in the vast sense, including "non-industrial" employment relationships. This is sometimes seen as paralleling trend in the separate but related disciple of human resource management. In recent times, industrial relations has been in decline as a field, in correlation with the decline in importance of trade unions and also with the increasing preference of business schools for the human resource management paradigm.Industrial relations has three faces: science building, problem solving, and ethical.

Informal Economy
Informal Economy ( or unorganized economy )-The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Unlike the formal economy, activities of the informal economy are not included in a country's gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP). The informal sector can be described as a grey market in labour.Other concepts that can be characterized as informal sector can include the black market (shadow economy, underground economy), agorism, and System D. Associated idioms include "under the table", "off the books", and "working for cash".Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is often stigmatized as troublesome and unmanageable. However, the informal sector provides critical economic opportunities for the poor and has been expanding rapidly since the 1960s. Integrating the informal economy into the formal sector is an important policy challenge. Learn more:

Intern - A student or trainee who works, sometimes without pay, in order to gain work experience or satisfy requirements for a qualification.An advanced student or graduate usually in a professional field (such as medicine or teaching) gaining supervised practical experience (as in a hospital or classroom).

INTERNSHIP - An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time.Once confined to medical graduates, the term is now used for a wide range of placements within businesses, non-profit organizations and government agencies. They are typically undertaken by students and graduates looking to gain relevant skills and experience in a particular field.Employers benefit from these placements because they often recruit employees from their best interns, who have known capabilities, thus saving time and money in the long run.Internships for professional careers are similar in some ways, but not as rigorous as apprenticeships for professions, trade, and vocational jobs.Interns may be high school students, college and university students, or postgraduate adults. These positions may be paid or unpaid and are temporary.Typically, an internship consists of an exchange of services for experience between the intern and the organization. Learn more:

IOM - Established in 1951, IOM is the chief inter-governmental organization in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners., IOM is committed to promoting humane and orderly migration for the benefit of all. It does so by providing services and advice to governments and migrants.IOM works to ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, to promote international cooperation on migration issues, to aid in the search for practical solutions to migration problems and to provide humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, including refugees and internally displaced people.The IOM Constitution recognizes the link between migration and economic, social and cultural development, as well as to the right of freedom of movement.IOM works in the four broad areas of migration management: Migration and development Facilitating migration Regulating migration Forced migration. IOM activities that cut across these areas include the promotion of international migration law, policy debate and guidance, protection of migrants' rights, migration health and the gender dimension of migration.IOM was born in 1951 out of the chaos and displacement of Western Europe following the Second World War. It was first known as the Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe (PICMME). Mandated to help European governments to identify resettlement countries for the estimated 11 million people uprooted by the war, it arranged transport for nearly a million migrants during the 1950s.

PSC - Indian Plumbing Skills Council is a company established under Section 25 of the Indian Companies Act 1956 . The IPSC acts as an accrediting and certifying body and works to fill the gap of skilled and unskilled labour in India.IPSC is playing a major role in vocational training of plumbers, providing recognition and certification to plumbers in accordance to National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) to make skilled manpower available for the Plumbing Industry from the entry level upto level 10 i.e. Ph.D (Doctorate). Learn more:

ITI - Industrial Training Institute (ITI) is a government training institute which provides training in engineering and non-engineering technical fields. It was formed under Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGET), Ministry of Labour & Employment, Union Government of India. It provides training for various industries Like Mechanical, Electronics, Information Technologies, Fabrication, Automobile, Diesel Mechanics, Lift Mechanics, Computer Software, Sheet metal, Electrical, Plumbing, Wire man etc.

IToTs - ( Institutes for Training of Trainers ) Currently instructors are coached under the Craft Instructor Training Scheme (CITS) in the field institutes of DGT. As on date field institutes of DGT (1 CTI, 5 ATIs, 1 NVTI & 12 RVTIs) have facility for imparting the instructor training in 27 trades (59 modules) out of 121 trades. The gross capacity of these institutes is around 1600 instructors per annum including Instructor training imparted in NVTI and RVTIs to women trainee instructors where the gross annual capacity is around 500 (out of 1600).

Kaushal Mart
Kaushal Mart Ensuring that skilling resources and reference material are readily available to skill seekers through verified content providers has been a constant challenge in India’s skill Ecosystem. Kaushal Mart shall be expanded as a Skilling Resource Marketplace offering a credible platform for exchange of skilling resources of different kinds. They include Participant Handbooks, Facilitator Guides, Presentations, Videos, amongst others. NSDC is develop ing an enabling an environment for all its stakeholders, by acting as a content aggregator, through this Skilling Resource Marketplace.Content and resource material for over 1400 QPs shall be developed over 6 years.

KVK - Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), an agricultural extension center in India is usually associated with a local agricultural university. The KVK centres serve as the ultimate link between farmers and Indian Council of Agricultural Research. KVKs attempt to apply agricultural research in a localized manner. KVKs come under the jurisdiction of any one of the 11 ATARIs (Agricultural Technology Application Research Institutes). Learn more:

Labour Laws
Labour Laws - Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. Employment standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work. Learn more:

LMIS - Labour Market Information System is a merged set of institutional arrangements, procedures, mechanisms and data systems designed to produce labour market information as per global standards and best practices. The system helps to collect statistical (quantitative) and non-statistical (qualitative) information regarding labour market actors and their environment and generate key analysis and reports which can be used for various policy interventions by different government stakeholders, as well as by the industry at large. The Labour Market Information System provides quantitative and qualitative information and intelligence on the labour market that can aid labour market agents in making informed plans, choices, and decisions related to their business requirements, career planning, education and training offerings, job search, recruitment, labour policies and workforce investment strategies.

LSC - Logistic Skills Council involves all activities related to movement of goods from the Manufacturer to the End consumer through a chain of channel partners. The logistics sector is going to be a key player for building a new India in both terms of productivity and employment. Service delivery will develop only when we have skill qualified personnel which is the mandate of LSC .The logistics sector employs about 21.24 million people. This includes those employed in passenger roadways segment, road freight and the passenger railways, freight forwarding, warehousing, packaging and other services.The LSC has 40 Qualification Packs under development which will address the skill need in 11 sub-sectors. Learn More:

LSSSDC - Life Sciences Sector Skill Development is a non profit organisation, established under the Societies Act, 1860. As a National level organization, in association with various stakeholders groups, it will assist to address the skill shortfalls in the Life Sciences Sector in India.There are close to 8.41 lacs ( Eight Lakh Forty One Thousand) workforce employed with Life Sciences Sector in India who are working in various occupations in Life Sciences Industry with skill set obtained through on the job learning or by undergoing organizational training programs. This currently employed workforce can be recognized and certified for their respective skills under the “RPL Program” of Life Sciences Sector Skill Development Council. Learn more:

LSSSDC - Life Sciences Sector Skill Development is a non profit organisation, established under the Societies Act, 1860. As a National level organization, in association with various stakeholders groups, it will assist to address the skill shortfalls in the Life Sciences Sector in India. Under the mandate of Govt. of India, Life Sciences Sector Skill Council is working towards achieving the Skilled India vision for Life Sciences Sector which include, Pharmaceutical, Bio-pharmaceuticals and Contract Research Sector.There are close to 8.41 lacs (Eight Lakh Forty One Thousand) workforce employed with Life Sciences Sector in India who are working in various occupations in Life Sciences Industry with skill set obtained through on the job learning or by undergoing organizational training programs. This currently employed workforce can be recognized and certified for their respective skills under the “RPL Program” of Life Sciences Sector Skill Development Council.

M. VOC - Students can now go for a Masters degree in Vocational education after completing their B.Voc degree. In a major boost to vocational education, the University Grants Commission (UGC), after introducing an undergraduate degree in the stream, has now specified a Master’s degree for it.The UGC, around three years ago, had launched B.Voc in higher education as a part of the National Vocational Education Qualification Framework (NVEQF). The vocational education was made part of college/university education, leading to award of Degree/Advanced Diploma/Diploma in the stream.The program was formulated on the guidelines spelt out in the NVEQF and the stipulations of the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) later superseded NVEQF.

Make in India
Make in India : Make in India,an initiative covering 25 sectors of the economy was launched by the Government of India on 25 September 2014 to encourage companies to manufacture their products in India and also increase their investment.Learn more: http://www.

MEPSC - Management Entrepreneurship and Professional Skills Council has different sectors. Skill development initiatives will be undertaken in four key segment domains of : Professional Skills, Entrepreneurship Skills, Office Management and Training & Assessment. The main aim of MEPSC is to give jobs to the skilled manforce and make them skilled in technical and generic ways. MEPSC has confirmed and assured to create technically and professionally competent workforce and industry professionals for both national and international markets. It is being promoted by All India Management Association (AIMA), the apex body of management profession in India as its sole promoter.

MES - A Manufacturing Execution System is an information system that connects, monitors and controls complex manufacturing systems and data flows on the factory floor. The main aim of an MES is to ensure effective execution of the manufacturing operations and improve production output. A MES helps achieve that goal by tracking and gathering accurate, real-time data about the complete production lifecycle, beginning with order release until the product delivery stage for finished goods.

MESC- Media & Entertainment Skills Council founded in 2012, registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 has been promoted by Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (FICCI) with the financial support from National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC).MESC plans to up-skill and train approximately 11.74 lakhs candidates for Media and Entertainment industries to make them employable within a period of 10 years and contribute to the National Skill Mission for creating 500 million Skilled human resource by 2022.The goals of MESC is to conduct Skill Gap Study and develop Occupational Standards,launch Skill Cataloguing for the Media and Entertainment Industry,develop Skill development plan with industry stakeholders, Government Agencies and NSDC to set up a Labor Market Information System (LMIS),standardization of affiliation, accreditation, and assessment process aligned with NSQF guidelines and analyse and create a pool of certified trainers and assessors across the country. Learn more:

MHRD - Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) was created on September 26, 1985 .The main objectives of the Ministry would be Formulating the National Policy on Education and to ensure that it is implemented in letter and spirit.Planned development in increasing access and improving quality of the educational institutions throughout the country and in the regions where people do not have easy access to education.Paying special attention to deprived groups like the poor, females and the minorities.By giving financial help in the form of scholarships, loan subsidy, etc to deserving candidates from deprived sections of the society.Encouraging international cooperation in the field of education, including working closely with the UNESCO and foreign governments as well as Universities, to improve the educational opportunities in the country. Learn more:

Microfinance - Also called microcredit​, is a type of banking service that is given to unemployed or low-income individuals or groups who otherwise would have no other access to financial services.The main goal of microfinance is to give needy people an opportunity to become self-sufficient. Microfinance services are provided to unemployed or low-income individuals because most of those trapped in poverty, or who have limited financial resources, do not have enough earnings to do business with traditional financial institutions. Microfinance allows people to take on reasonable small business loans safely, and in a manner that is consistent with ethical lending practices.They exist all around the world but the majority of micro financing operations occur in developing nations, such as Uganda, Indonesia, Serbia, and Honduras. Many microfinance institutions focus their attention on helping women in particular.India's SKS Microfinance also serves a large number of poor clients. Formed in 1998, it has grown to become one of the largest microfinance operations in the world. SKS works in a similar fashion to the Grameen Bank, pooling all borrowers into groups of five members who work together to ensure that their loans are repaid. The benefits of microfinance extend beyond the direct effects of giving people a source for capital. Entrepreneurs who develop successful businesses, in turn create jobs, trade, and overall economic improvement within a community. Many micro finances empower women in particular, which leads to more stability and prosperity for families. Learn more:

Minimum wage
Minimum wage-A minimum wage is the lowest remuneration that employers can legally pay their workers. Equivalently, it is the price floor below which workers may not sell their labor. Although minimum wage laws are in effect in many jurisdictions, differences of opinion exist about the benefits and drawbacks of a minimum wage. Supporters of the minimum wage say it increases the standard of living of workers, reduces poverty, reduces inequality, and boosts morale. Learn more:

MoLE- Ministry of Labour and Employment .The Ministry of Labour & Employment is one of the oldest and important Ministries of the Government of India. The main responsibility of the Ministry is to protect and safeguard the interests of workers in general and those who constitute the poor, deprived and disadvantaged sections of the society, in particular, with due regard to creating a healthy work environment for higher production and productivity and to develop and coordinate vocational skill training and employment services. Government’s attention is also focused on promotion of welfare and providing social security to the labour force both in organized and unorganized sectors, in tandem with the process of liberalization. These objectives are sought to be achieved through enactment and implementation of various labour laws, which regulate the terms and conditions of service and employment of workers. The State Governments are also competent to enact legislations, as labour is a subject in the concurrent list under the Constitution of India.The Ministry aims to create a healthy work environment for higher production and productivity and to develop and coordinate vocational skill training and employment. Learn more:

MoRD - Ministry of Rural Development.The Ministry of Rural Development, a branch of the Government of India, is entrusted with the task of accelerating the socio-economic development of rural India. Its focus is on health, education, drinking water, housing and roads.The aims of the Ministry of Rural Development are providing livelihood opportunities to those in need including women and other vulnerable sections with focus on Below Poverty Line (BPL) households,providing social assistance to the elderly, widow and disabled persons and providing urban amenities in rural areas for improvement of quality of rural life. Learn more:

MSDE - The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship is a Ministry of Government of India set up on 9 November 2014 to coordinate all skill development efforts across the country. Industrial training, apprenticeship and other skill development responsibilities were transferred from the Ministry of Labour and Employment to this newly- made Ministry on 16 April 2015. It’s goals are to remove the gap between demand and supply of skilled manpower, to build the new skills and innovative thinking not only for existing jobs but also for jobs that are to be created. Learn more:

MSDF - The Michael & Susan Dell Foundation is committed to reconstructing the lives of children living in urban poverty through improving their education, health and family economic stability. Learn more:

MSME - The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, a branch of the Government of India, is the apex body for the formulation and administration of rules, regulations and laws relating to micro, small and medium enterprises in India.. Definitions of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises In accordance with the provision of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) are classified in two Classes: 1. Manufacturing Enterprises-he enterprises engaged in the manufacture or production of goods pertaining to any industry specified in the first schedule of the industries (Development and regulation) Act, 1951) or employing plant and machinery in the process of value addition to the final product having a distinct name or character or use. The Manufacturing Enterprise are defined in terms of investment in Plant & Machinery.2. Service Enterprises:-The enterprises engaged in providing or rendering of services and are defined in terms of investment in equipment.The limit for investment in plant and machinery / equipment for manufacturing / service enterprises, as notified. Learn more:

NAARM - The National Academy of Agricultural Research Management is a national-level research center located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India. In 1976,Indian Council of Agricultural Research has established it to address the issues related to agricultural research and education management, in India. Initially,the Academy basically imparted foundation training to the new entrants of the Agricultural Research Service of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.Subsequently, its role expanded to include research and capacity building of senior professionals of national and international .The ICAR-National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM) was established by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research in 1976 at Hyderabad. The major mandate of the Academy is to build capacity in agricultural research, education and extension education systems, and provide policy advocacy for the National Agricultural Research and Education System (NARES). Learn more:

NAP - National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) is a new scheme of Government of India to promote apprenticeship. It was launched on19th August 2016. It was advocated to :To promote apprenticeship training :To incentivize employers who wish to engage apprentices.To increase the apprentices from present 2.3 lakh to 50 lakh Apprenticeship training is a course of training in any industry . Apprenticeship training consists of basic training and on-the-job-training (OJT)/practical training at workplace. Basic training consists of theoretical and practical instructions relating to the trade in which on-the-job-training is to be imparted. It is mandatory for those who have not done any formal training in an ITI or in those courses under PMKVY/MES which have been granted equivalence with basic training cumulatively by 2020. Learn more:

NASSCOM- NASSCOM, a not-for-profit industry association, is the apex body for the 154 billion dollar Indian IT BPM industry. Established in 1988, NASSCOM has relentlessly catalysed the Indian IT BPM industry in its journey towards building an innovation led growth sector, with transformative business models, expanding its value proposition and becoming a partner of choice for global businesses. Learn more:

NCVET - National Council of Vocational and Employment Training is formed by merging National Council for Vocational Training, NCVT and National Skill Development Agency, NSDA. NCVET will regulate the functioning of entities engaged in vocational education and training, both long-term and short-term and establish minimum standards for the functioning of such entities. The primary functions of NCVET will include - recognition and regulation of awarding bodies, assessment bodies and skill related information providers; approval of qualifications developed by awarding bodies and Sector Skill Councils (SSCs); indirect regulation of vocational training institutes through awarding bodies and assessment agencies; research and information dissemination; grievance redressal. Learn more:

NCVT (now called as NCVET) - National Council for Vocational Training is an advisory body set up by the Government of India in 1956 . The Council has been assigned with the responsibilities of prescribing standards and curricula for craftsmen training, advising the Government of India on the overall policy and programmes, conducting All India Trade Tests and awarding National Trade Certificates.The objective of NCVT is to establish and award National Trade Certificates in engineering , non - engineering , building textiles , leather and such other trades which are brought within its scope by the Government of India . National Council for Vocational Training focuses at creating opportunities for low cost training programs that has maximum practical exposure. After the completion of this training, the trainee can appear for the All India Trade Test to obtain National Trade Certificate. After getting a certificate, a person can now serve in various posts, across India and abroad. Learn more:

NEEM - NEEM Scheme known as National Employability Enhancement Scheme, is a pioneering initiative taken jointly by AICTE and Government of India. The Schemes main goal is producing skilled labors and to counter the problem of shortage of skilled labour in India. It provides for, on the job training to the students .NEEM Scheme also has few great incentives for the participating industries. Industries becoming part of the NEEM Scheme enjoy liability free workforce. They can train the manpower as per their requirements and also have an option of absorbing them full time if need be.The Central government is aware of the Extreme scale of the challenge and has therefore launched a program through AICTE(All India Council for Technical Education). It is already popularly known as NEEM(National Employment Enhancement Mission). The ambition is to develop a competent workforce which could take the country ahead in the industrial world. World popular concept of “On the job practical training” is the basis of this program targeting enhancement of employability among individuals who are pursuing graduation or have discontinued or completed a diploma or graduation in any technical or non-technical field.

NEN -National Entrepreneurship Network(NEN) was launched in 2003, as a non-profit initiative . NEN is a community to develop entrepreneurship . Services focus on providing Institutional capacity building , Entrepreneur support , Entrepreneurial system , National platforms . The aim of the community is to ensure new and future entrepreneurs to access events and resources , share ideas and contents organise and market activities and forge relationships across India and the world .NEN inspires, educates and supports student entrepreneurs, startups and SMEs for creating high-value jobs in Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Mexico, Chile, Peru, Colombia, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Bangladesh, operating in association with governments, corporates, mentors, investors and educational institutes.

NEW COLLAR - A new-collar worker is an individual who develops technical and soft skills needed to work in the contemporary technology industry through nontraditional education paths.The term "new-collar job" is a play on “blue-collar job”. The term was introduced by IBM CEO Ginni Rometty in late 2016 and refers to "middle-skill" occupations in technology, such as cybersecurity analysts, application developers and cloud computing specialists.New collar jobs are occupations which focus more on a candidate’s skills during the hiring process, rather than his or her level of education. New collar jobs do not necessarily require a traditional four-year college degree and are mostly found in the information technology (IT), manufacturing and healthcare industries.They often do require other types of vocational training and certifications. This training is usually completed at community colleges, vocational and technical high schools and other vocational training programs, as well as occasionally through the company itself. Learn more:

NGO -Non-governmental organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are generally non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas. They are thus a subset of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens.The explanation of the term by (the non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations) is ambivalent. It says a NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level, but then goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs execute a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.NGOs are usually financed by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes.

NIEPID- National Institute for the Empowerment of Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (Formerly National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped) established in the year 1984 at Manovikas Nagar, Secunderabad (TS) is an Autonomous Body under the administrative control of Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India. NIEPID (Formerly NIMH) is dedicated to provide quality services to Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (Divyangjan) in the National interest. The objectives for which NIEPID(Formerly NIMH) works are listed as under:- Objectives Human Resources Development Research and Development Development of models of care and rehabilitation. Documentation and dissemination. Consultancy services to voluntary organizations Community Based Rehabilitation Extension and Outreach programmes National Institute of Mentally Handicapped is an autonomous organization functioning under the aegis of Indian Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment with the primary objective of empowering mentally handicapped people. NIEPID- "National Institute for the Empowerment of Person with Intellectual Disability" is formerly known as NIMH.The organization aims to work in the direction of human resources development, perform research and development, development of models of care and rehabilitation, prepare documentation and dissemination, offer consultancy services to voluntary organizations, conduct community-based rehabilitation and organize extension and outreach programs.The organization conducts various activities in order to achieve its objectives. In 2004, the organization collaborated with United States-based National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research for a workshop on autism. During the same time of year, the organization began offering a master's degree program in disability rehabilitation — said to be one of its kind. The organization has also carried out initiatives against discrimination of people with disabilities. The institute has trained 35,000 parents since its inception by organising group parent training programs based on child characteristics and parent demographic features. In 2011, Lady Gaga visited the organization and discussed ideas to support disabled children. Learn more:

NITTTR -The National Institute of Technical Teachers Training and Research (NITTTR) Chennai was established as an autonomous Institute by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India in the year 1964 to improve the quality of Engineering Education system in India and in the Southern Region in particular. Within this mandate, the institute takes initiatives to offer need based Human Resource Development programmes through appropriate modes and develop curricula and instructional resources. It also fosters research in the interdisciplinary area of Engineering Education and offers consultancy and extension services for the total development of Engineering Colleges, Polytechnic Colleges, Vocational institutions, Industry, Service sector and the Community at large.NITTTR, Chennai envision to be a leading institute in promoting excellence in Engineering Education by planning, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating quality training programmes, learning resources, research studies and extension services for technical educational institutions, industry and community. Learn more:

NOP - A Non Profit Organisation ,also known as a non-business entity not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is committed to furthering a particular social cause or advocating for a shared point of view. In economic terms, it is an organization that uses its surplus of the revenues to further achieve its ultimate goal , rather than distributing its income to the organization's shareholders, leaders, or members. Nonprofits are exempted from tax or charitable, meaning they do not pay income tax on the money that they receive for their organization. They can operate in religious, scientific, research, or educational settings.The key aspects of nonprofits are accountability, trustworthiness, honesty, and openness to every person who has invested time, money, and faith into the organization. Nonprofit organizations are answerable to the donors, funders, volunteers, program recipients, and the public community. Learn more:

NOS: National Occupational Standards (NOS) specify the standard of performance an individual must achieve when carrying out a function in the workplace, together with the knowledge and understanding they need to meet that standard consistently. Essentially NOS are benchmarks of good practice. These Occupational Standards are combined to a set, which is called Qualification Pack (QP).

NQAF- The National Quality Assurance Framework (NQAF) aims to improve the quality of all education and training/skills programmes in India. The NQAF provides the benchmarks or quality criteria which the different organisations involved in education and training must meet in order to be accredited to provide education and training/ skills activities. This is applicable to all organizations offering NSQF-compliant qualifications.The NQAF Manuals provide guidance for different groups of organisations, describing what each needs to do to meet the quality criteria. Learn more: < a href="">

NQR-National Qualification Register The National Qualifications Register is the official national public record of all qualifications aligned to NSQF levels, qualification pathways and accrediting authorities. It gives learners and other users of qualifications access to all the qualifications registered and currently on offer. The Register is designed to be of use to learners, employers, awarding bodies, training providers, schools, colleges, government agencies and their partners. It will facilitate access to and retrieval of information on all qualifications in the NSQF through a full search facility. The process for including a qualification in the NSQF will involve the qualification development body submitting a completed Qualification File to NSDA for evaluation and approval by the NSQC Learn more:

NREGA -National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA No 42, later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act", MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to work'. It’s goal is to improve the livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.The act was first proposed in 1991 by P.V. Narasimha Rao. In 2006, it was finally accepted in the parliament and commenced implementation in 625 districts of India. Based on this pilot experience, NREGA covered all the districts of India from 1 April 2008. The resolution is hailed by the government as "the largest and most ambitious social security and public works programme in the world". In its World Development Report 2014, the World Bank termed it a "stellar example of rural development". Learn more:

NRLM -National Rural Livelihood Mission is a poverty alleviation project implemented by Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. This scheme focuses on promoting self-employment and organization of rural poor. The primary idea behind this programme is to organize the poor into SHG (Self Help Groups) groups and make them capable for self-employment. The core belief of National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM) is that the poor have innate capabilities and a strong desire to come out of poverty. They are entrepreneurial, and have necessary coping mechanism to survive under conditions of poverty. The challenge is to unleash their capabilities to generate meaningful livelihoods and enable them to come out of poverty. Learn more:

NSDA (Now merged with NCVt and called as NCVET) National Skill Development Agency is an autonomous body, ( registered as a society under the societies Registration Act 1860 ) was created with the mandate to coordinate and harmonise the skill development activities in the country , is part of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship ( MSDE ). And it attempts to increase Employability of Youth in India. The function of NSDA is to evaluate existing skill development schemes with a view to assessing their efficacy and suggest corrective action to make them more effective. Protect the skilling needs of the disadvantaged and the marginalized groups like SCs, STs, OBCs, minorities, women and differently abled persons are taken care of. Learn more:

NSDC - National Skills Development Corporation India was set up as a one of its kind , Public Private Partnership Company with the Primary mandate of catalysing the skills landscape in India. NSDC also works with ministries and state governments to foster greater local and sector-specific initiatives and research. In addition, NSDC continues to work with organizations which focus on skill development for Women and/or People with Disabilities (PWD). Learn more:

NSDC Training Partners
NSDC Training Partners : NSDC is a major contributor to the Skill India Mission with a Training Partner (TP) network of over 400 affiliates, 37 industry-led Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) and various enabling systems and initiatives. NSDC provides support to build scalable and profitable vocational training institutions across the country. It also acts as a catalyst in skill development by providing funding/technical assistance to enterprises, companies and organizations associated with skill development.Learn more:

NSDF - National Skill Development Fund was set up in 2009 by the Government Of India for raising funds both from Government and Non Government Sectors for skill development in the country . The fund is contributed by various Government sources and other donors / contributors to enhance, stimulate and develop the skills of Indian youth by various sector specific programs. Learn more:

NSDM - The National Skill Development Mission provides a strong institutional framework at the Centre and States for implementation of skilling activities in the country. The plan will have a three-tiered, high powered decision making structure. At the pinnacle the Mission’s Governing Council, chaired by the Prime Minister, will provide overall guidance and policy direction. The Steering Committee, chaired by Minister in Charge of Skill Development, will evaluate the Mission’s activities in line with the direction set by the Governing Council. The Mission Directorate, with Secretary, Skill Development as Mission Director, will ensure implementation, coordination and convergence of skilling activities across Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments. The Mission will also run select sub-missions in high priority areas. Further, the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA), the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and the Directorate of Training will function under the overall guidance of the Mission. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) provides a natural home for the Mission, organically linking all three decision making levels and facilitating linkages to all Central Ministries/Departments and State Governments. Learn more:

NSQF - The National Skill Qualification Framework is a competency based framework that organises all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge skills and aptitude. NSQF is also a quality assurance framework since the learner can acquire the certification for competency needed at any level through formal , non formal or formal learning. NSQF aims at achieving: 1.Mobility between vocational and general education by alignment of degrees with NSQF; and 2.Recognition of Prior Learning ( RPL ) , allowing transition from non-formal to organised job market. Learn more:

NULM -The Mission of National Urban Livelihood Mission is to reduce poverty and vulnerability of the urban poor households by enabling them to access self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities, which results in a significant improvement in their livelihoods on a sustainable basis, through building strong grassroots level institutions for the poor. The mission would also aim at providing shelter equipped with essential services to the urban homeless in a phased manner. In addition, the Mission would also address livelihood concerns of the urban street vendors also by facilitating access to suitable spaces, institutional credit, social security and skills to the urban street vendors for accessing emerging market opportunities.NULM will rest on the foundation of community mobilization and women empowerment. NULM envisions universal mobilisation of urban poor households into thrift and credit-based Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and their federations/collectives. These groups will serve as a support system for the poor, to meet their financial and social need. Learn more:

NVEQF (now called NSQF) - The National Vocational Education on Qualification Framework , which has been recently launches by ( AICTE ) All India Council For Technical Education and Ministry of HRD. It mainly focuses on general education element into VE ( Vocational Education ) and vice versa. It introduces the vocational education program in schools that will offer new career choices to students and make them better prepared for the job market . This would be especially useful to promote the creative genius of every child including children with special needs . The cornerstone of the NVEQF would be the close partnership and collaboration with the industry / potential employees at all stages starting from identification of courses , content development , training , accreditation , certification and placement . Learn more:

OECD - The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 36 member countries, established in 1961 to encourage economic progress and world trade. It is a forum of countries describing themselves as committed to democracy and the market economy, providing a platform to compare policy experiences, seeking answers to common problems, identify good practices and coordinate domestic and international policies of its members. Most members of OECD are high-income economies with a very high Human Development Index (HDI) and are regarded as highly developed countries.The OECD is financed by contributions from member states .The mission of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is to promote policies that will enhance the economic and social well-being of people around the world. Learn more:

OJT -On-the-Job Training can be described as the process of passing along the skills, knowledge, and competencies needed for employees to perform a specific job in the environment of their workplace. On-the-job training is highly effective because it uses the existing workplace tools, machines, documents and equipment which simplifies the process of adapting to the new work environment. This type of training is normally used for practical tasks. A large majority of employee learning is accomplished through on-the-job training.When well designed, OTJ training program provides the needed resources and knowledge from competent staff managers, while setting a performance standards. Learn more:

OPEX -An operating expense, operating expenditure, operational expense, operational expenditure or opex is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system.Its counterpart, a capital expenditure (capex), is the cost of developing or providing non-consumable parts for the product or system. For example, the purchase of a photocopier involves capex, and the annual paper, toner, power and maintenance costs represents opex. For larger systems like businesses, opex may also include the cost of workers and facility expenses such as rent and utilities.In business, an operating expense is a day-to-day expense such as sales and administration, or research & development, as opposed to production, costs, and pricing. In short, this is the money the business spends in order to turn inventory into throughput. Learn more:

OSHA -The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. OSHA's mission is to assure safe and healthy working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance. The OSHA Training Institute, trains government and private sector health and safety personnel. OSHA's workplace safety inspections have been shown to reduce injury rates and injury costs without adverse effects to employment, sales, credit ratings, or firm survival.The OSH Act covers most private sector employers and their workers, in addition to some public sector employers and workers in the 50 states and certain territories and jurisdictions under federal authority. Learn more:

PARFI -PanIIT Alumni Reach for India Foundation is an organization which creates scalable and sustainable systems of enhancing the income levels of those people who are below the poverty line. This is done by delivering vocational education.PARFI aims to increase the income levels of people by providing zero subsidy vocational training program.100% loan financing is also provided.PARFI persuades Corporates to come forth and help scale its social enterprise to a PAN India level as this model works towards a sustainable social enterprise. PARFI has initiated affirmative referrals amongst parents of disadvantaged youth, both boys and girls to send their children to Gurukul for training, as success stories from candidates come forward who have been through the Gurukul system is helping convince people to be part of the movement.PARFI’s rural skill Gurukuls are open for admission only to Below Poverty Line (BPL) students who are unskilled and typically have not passed the upper cut-off of class X. Learn more:

Payroll -A payroll is a company's list of its employees, but the term is commonly used to refer to: the total amount of money that a company pays to its employees a company's records of its employees' salaries and wages, bonuses, and withheld taxes the company's department that calculates funds and pays these.[1] Payroll in the sense of "money paid to employees" plays a major role in a company for several reasons. Learn more:

PBL - Problem-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material. The PBL process does not focus on problem solving with a defined solution, but it allows for the development of other desirable skills and attributes. This includes knowledge acquisition, enhanced group collaboration and communication.The process allows for learners to develop skills used for their future practice. It enhances critical appraisal, literature retrieval and encourages ongoing learning within a team environment.The PBL tutorial process involves working in small groups of learners. Each student takes on a role within the group that may be formal or informal and the role often alternates. It is focused on the student's reflection and reasoning to construct their own learning. Learn more:

PCSC - Paints and Coatings Skill Council was registered in October 2015 under Section 8 of the Companies Act 2013 as a non- profit company. It is promoted by industry bodies such as The Indian Paint Association (IPA), Indian Small Scale Paint Association (ISSPA) and Indian Paints and Coatings Association (IPCA). By combining standardised curriculums with sophisticated assessment tools for quality assurance, the council's goal is to promote and develop an ecosystem necessary to fill the skill gaps and meet the evolving challenges across all trades in the industry.The Paints and Coatings Skill Council is pledged to take steps to:Identify skills needed in the coatings sector.Develop the National Occupational Standards for all these skills. Develop the course material and training resources needed for quality training.Encourage and promote the setting up of the required training institutions/academies.Ensure that those who are trained in these institutions, meet the requirement of the industry.To connect trained and skilled workforce and potential employers. Paints and Coatings Skill Council works jointly with the industry to understand its requirements and respond to its expectations so as to facilitate faster growth of the sector and enable delivering better value to the end user. Learn more:

PIA - Project Implementation Agencies (PIAs) partner for effective implementation of various schemes in skill development such as DDU-GKY. They are an integral part of the planning process and play an important role in the success of the program. Learn more: http://

PINK COLLAR - A third type of work is a service worker (pink collar) whose labor is related to customer interaction, entertainment, sales or other service-oriented work.In the United States and (at least some) other English-speaking countries, a pink-collar- worker refers to someone working in the care- oriented career field or in jobs historically considered to be "women’s work." This may include jobs in nursing, teaching, secretarial work, waitressing, or child care. While these jobs may be filled by men, they are typically female-dominated and may or may not pay significantly less than white-collar or blue-collar jobs.Many occupations blend blue, white, or pink industry categorizations. Learn more:

PIOCCI - People of Indian Origin Chamber of Commerce and Industry is a not-for-profit initiative.People of Indian Origin constitute the largest diaspora in the world. As per the Indian Ministry of External Affairs there are approximately 30.8 million Indian diaspora residing outside India.PIOCCI seeks to explore new dimensions on showcasing and building economic partnerships between India and its Diaspora.With a strong base of entrepreneurs, leaders and NGOs that enjoy a rich and vast network in India and overseas, PIOCCI is poised to project a multitude of dimensions of how NRIs and PIOs could become part of India’s fast-paced growth and development across sectors.PIOCCI aims to act as a platform to connect and catalyze a regular interaction with the diaspora spread in more than 150 countries.PIOCCI has been exploring new dimensions on showcasing and building economic partnerships between India and its diaspora and this Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) provides an impetus to contribute to skilling India.PIOCCI has been serving India’s engagement and partnership with the diaspora in areas of investment, trade and commerce, technology/innovation/knowledge sharing, social, cultural, tourism, spiritual, healthcare, climate change, anti-terrorism, industries, agriculture/food processing, water & sanitation, infrastructure among others, with a focus on emboldening India’s dynamic new policies and schemes such as Make in India, Digital India, Skill India, Swachh Bharat Mission, Jan Dhan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana, Namami Gange etc. towards strengthening bilateral relations with countries of Indian Diaspora strength and improved socio-economic development in India. Learn more:

PMKVY - Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana is the flagship of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship ( MSDE ) to facilitate youth employability. It was launched on 15th July 2015, observing the date as National Skills Day . The objective of this PMKVY Skill Certificate is to enable a large number of Indian youth to take up industry relevant skill training that will help them in securing a better livelihood. The training is completely free since the government pays the training and assessment fee. Learn more:

PPP - Public-private partnership is a financing model for a public infrastructure project such as a new telecommunications system, airport or power plant. The public partner is represented by the government at a local, state and national level. The private partner can be a privately-owned business, public corporation or consortium of businesses with a specific area of expertise.PPP is a comprehensive term that can be applied to anything from a simple, short term management contract (with or without investment requirements) to a long-term contract that includes funding, planning, building, operation, maintenance and divestiture. PPP is useful for large projects that require highly-skilled work force and a significant cash outlay to get started. Learn more:–private_partnership

PSSC - "Power Sector Skill Council has been set up as a Society under Society Registration Act of 1860 with the aim of facilitating the skill development activities including capacity building for training to meet the needs of Power Industry .The main objectives of the PSSC is to make sure that skilled and certified manpower in adequate number is made available across various segments of this industry. The PSSC will build a dynamic labour market information system (LMIS) to keep track of the labour market, will identify skill gaps, and frame occupational standards in order to facilitate development of practical and high quality training content. Learn more:

QP-NOS - NOSs – National Occupational Standards (NOSs) is the sole authority to decide and judge the standard of performance, knowledge and understanding when carrying out a particular activity in the workplace. Each NOS specifies one key function in a job role. For example: For a Sales Associate, one of the NOS would be to 'To help customers choose right products’. Learn more:

Qualification Packs – A set of National Occupational Standards, aligned to a job role, called Qualification Packs (QPs), would be accessible for every job role in each industry sector. These drive both the creation of curriculum, and assessments. These job roles would be at various proficiency levels, and aligned to the NSQF. Example would be Qualification Pack of a Sales Associate Sector Skill Councils are accountable for the creation of QPs and NOSs. These Occupational Standards are open for public viewing for a month on Learn more:

QUALITY ASSURANCE - Quality assurance (QA) is a way of preventing mistakes and defects in manufactured products and avoiding problems when delivering solutions or services to customers.The terms "quality assurance" and "quality control" are often used interchangeably to refer to ways of ensuring the quality of a service or product. Quality assurance includes two principles: "Fit for purpose" (the product should be suitable for the intended purpose); and "right first time" (mistakes should be eliminated). Learn more:

RASCI - Retail Association’s Sector Skill Council of India is a collaborative and comprehensive source of retail expertise and independent advice for industry, training organizations, educational institutions, certifying bodies, employees, students or jobseekers about skills development in the retail industry.RASCI is a not-for-profit, independent public limited organisation established under Section 25 of the Companies Act.RASCI’s vision is to create a sustainable industry aligned ecosystem by promoting retail skill development, benefiting millions in India to get respectable employment opportunities for serving customers and other stakeholders. Learn more:

RDAT- Regional Directorate of Apprenticeship Training Learn more:

RFP - RFP (Request for proposal) is an agreement that invites proposals from companies or agencies who are interested in procuring a service,commodity,valuable assets etc from potential suppliers.This is often made through a bidding process. RFP is used when a technical expertise or specialized capability is required.It is also used where the product or service being requested does not exist and may require research and development to create whatever is being requested.RFPs usually contains the strategy and short/long business objectives which provides detailed description regarding the requirement so that the supplier can offer the best matching product/service/assets.Similar requests include a request for quotation (RFQ), whereby the customer may simply be looking for a price quote, and a request for information (RFI), where the customer needs more information from vendors before submitting an RFP. An RFI is typically followed by an RFP or RFQ. Learn more:

RMSA - The Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan scheme was set in motion in March, 2009 with the objective to improve access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The operation of the scheme started from 2009-10. It visualized to achieve an enrolment rate of 75% from 52.26% in 2005-06 at secondary stage of implementation of the scheme by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of any habitation. The other objective included improving quality of education offered at secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms, removing gender, socio-economic and disability barriers, providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017.

RPL- RPL is a key element under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) scheme of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE). The scheme plans to impart skill based training to one crore people between 2016 – 2020. and RPL will account for 40 lakhs candidate whose prior experience and skills will be assessed and certified. Learn more:

RSDC - Rubber Skill Development Council , a Sector Skill Council for the rubber sector set up by All India Rubber Industries Association(AIRIA) & Automotive Tyre Manufacturers Association(ATMA) in collaboration with NSDC is focusing on skill development & training needs of the rubber secto. The objective of establishing the Rubber Skill Development Council (RSDC) is to ensure the generation of skilled manpower in both the Tyre and the Non Tyre sectors, provide employment opportunities to youth across the nation, create career paths in roles existing within the unorganized and organized segments of the Rubber industry and ensure active participation of the industry in absorption of skilled manpower generated through RSDC. Learn more:

RVTI -NSTI(W), formerly RVTI (W) Regional Vocational Training Institute comes under The Directorate General of Training (DGT) under the Ministry of skill development & entrepreneurship, launched the Vocational Training Programme exclusively for women in October 1994. This programme aimed at establishing womens exclusive Vocational Training at all regions of India. The Directorate General of Training (DGT), Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, launched the Women’s Vocational Training Programme in 1977. The goal of this program is to establish women’s exclusive training facilities at regional levels , all over the country.

SANKALP - Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion is committed for developing an employment route for Indian job seekers, especially covering a large scale unskilled population. Arun Jaitley, inaugurating his budget speech on 1st Feb confirmed the concern of making India, an employment driven economy by planning a major share of govt expenditure to skill development.He also quoted to assure more funds to employment programs like Sankalp “Skill Acquisition & Knowledge Awareness Program ” to provide market training to more than 3.5 Cr youth and helping them for generating self employment opportunities. Learn more:

SCGJ - Skill Council for Green Jobs is one of the most recently launched initiatives of the Government of India aligned to the National Skill Development Mission. It is promoted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The inception of the SCGJ was approved in the 10th meeting of National Skill Qualifications Committee held on 28th September 2015. Established as a non profit, autonomous, industry-led society, the SCGJ was established under the Societies Registration Act XXI, 1860 on 1st October, 2015. To recognize skilling needs of service users as well as manufacturers/ service providers, within Green Businesses sector, and implement nationwide, Industry led, collaborative skills development & entrepreneur development initiatives that will enable meet India’s potential for “Green Businesses”.Green jobs are decent jobs that contribute to preservation of the environment, be they in traditional sectors such as manufacturing and construction, or in new, emerging green sectors such as renewable energy and energy efficiency.

SCMS - The Skill Council for Mining Sector (SCMS) funded by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and promoted by the Federation of Indian Mineral Industries is a Non-Profit Organization, registered under Section 25 of the companies Act. 1956. SCMS is a top body for skill development in the mining sector. The important task will be to develop skill competency standards and qualifications, benchmarking it with international standards and to work with the mining industry to train existing workforce and new trainees to fulfill the skill shortage in the industry in PPP mode. The Skill Council for Mining Sector will see and promote skill development and vocational education in the mining sector in accordance with the objectives of the National Skill Development Corporation and contribute to human capital development of the nation to achieve inclusive growth. Learn more:

SCPwD - The Skill Council for Persons with Disability is a dynamic and evolving organisation which was established in October 2015 to offer Persons with Disabilities meaningful, industry relevant, skill based training.The Organization is aided by Confederation of Indian Industry under the backing of Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship and Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. It’s main goal is to offer skill development to People with Disabilities as per industry needs which can help them to be gainfully employed and contribute to India’s growing economy.All initiatives taken by SCPwD empowering PwD (Persons with Disability), move towards formulating local and national level strategies for shaping the future of PwD in India. From the beginning, there are several projects which have been undertaken by the council since its inception. One among the recent is the collaboration with Glasgow Kelvin College, Scotland under UK-India Education and Research Institute (UKIERI) to benchmark standards between India and Scotland in the area of Disability.

SDG -Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), also known as Global Goals are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015.The SDGs cover social and economic development issues including poverty, hunger, health, education, global warming, gender equality, water, sanitation, energy, urbanization, environment and social justice.The SDGs are part of Resolution 70/1 of the United Nations General Assembly:"Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development." That has been shortened to "2030 Agenda."The goals are interdependent and each goal has a separate list of targets to achieve. A total of 169 targets has to be achieved in order to accomplish all 17 goals. Learn more:

SDI (Skill Development Institute - Visakhapatnam) is a good example of how Public Sector Units (PSU) in India have taken initiatives in contributing to Skill India Mission by offering many skill-based training courses.We’ve aligned ourselves with Skill India mission and as per directives from Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Skill Development Institutes were set up across the country to cater to the skilling requirements in the Hydrocarbon sector. Six SDIs have been set up, which are located in Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar, Kochi, Ahmedabad, Rae Bareilly and Guwahati. Oil & Gas PSUs are promoting these SDIs. Learn more:

SDMS - Skill Development Management System was originally designed as a transaction processing system to support the core mandate of the NSDC of investing in scalable, high quality, vocational training initiatives. The SDMS architecture, hence, was developed as a training provider-centric solution to manage and monitor NSDC investments that were limited to a few hundred training providers. With the broadening of NSDC’s mandate to implement the PMKVY through its own training partners, as well as the training partners of the SSCs, the SDMS was expanded in scope to work with candidate-level information of millions of candidates and a strong emphasis on certification of the training experience. Learn more:

SHGs. Self Help Groups are mainly aimed at empowering women through economic independence through solving each other problems. They are also encouraged to maintain small savings and take up self-employment.

Skill Gap
Skill Gap - A skill gap is a gap between what employers want or need their employees to be able to do, and what those employees can actually do when they walk into work.Skill Gap is the difference in the skills required on the job and the actual skills possessed by the employees. Skill gap presents an opportunity for the company and the employee to identify the missing skills and try to gain them.Employees are recruited by companies to work on fulfilling company objectives. Hence, people with the correct skill sets are recruited by companies. However, often it happens that employees lack certain knowledge & training which creates a skill gap. Because of this the employee is unable to perform the complete job.Employees are recruited by companies to work on fulfilling company objectives. Skill Gap Analysis Identifying skill gaps is essential for the companies to ensure that the workforce is well trained, knowledgeable & better equipped to perform the job. An Employee Skill Gap analysis helps achieve the following objectives: 1. Helps one refine and define skills the agency needs, now and in the future 2.Make employees aware about the critical skills they’ll need to grow 3. Helps in recruiting efforts when current employees don’t have the skills or the interest In terms of banking, an example of a skill gap could be if an employee lacked the ability to cash government bonds.

Skill India
Skill India : Skill India is a campaign launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 15 July 2015 which aim to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022. It includes various initiatives of the government like "National Skill Development Mission", "National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015", "Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)" and the "Skill Loan scheme".Learn more:

Skill Loan Scheme

SMART- Skill Management And Accreditation of Training Centre provides a single window IT application that focuses on the Accreditation, Affiliation and Continuous Monitoring of the Training Centres (TC) in the Skill Ecosystem and intends to address the important issues like evaluating skill providers in an objective manner, fostering excellence in Training Centres, enabling trainees to make informed choices with regard to Training Centres etc. SMART aims at convergence of efforts of all the stakeholders in the skill ecosystem in providing the standardized infrastructure. Learn more:

SME - Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) are businesses whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits. The abbreviation "SME" is used by international organizations such as the World Bank, the United Nations and the World Trade Organization (WTO). SMEs are important for economic and social reasons, given the sectors role in employment. Due to their sizes, SME are heavily influenced by their Chief Executive Officers, CEOs. The CEOs of SMEs often are the founders, owners, and manager of the SMEs. Learn more:

SMSSC - The Strategic Manufacturing Sector Skill Council (SMSSC) is established under the Societies Act. The Council has the backing of the Ministry of Skills Development Entrepreneurship (MSDE), Govt of India and National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) & assisted by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). The SMSSC will help establish a trained workforce for defence equipment manufacturing, shipbuilding and repair, homeland security equipment and safety and fire fighting & safety equipment.Availability of engineers and skilled personnel is among the biggest challenges for the strategic manufacturing sector .The sector requires high precision levels and the current training infrastructure is insufficient to create the required skilled manpower base.In order to accomplish this, all the stakeholders will have to work collectively. India will need approximately 18 lakh technically highly-skilled, skilled and semi-skilled workers for the sector over the next decade.The SMSSC has been initiated to address this requirement and to function as the interface between the Industry and the MSDE in the Strategic Manufacturing Sector. The SMSSC will also keep track of the labour market, identify skill gaps, frame national occupational standards, ensure adequate availability of faculty, build accreditation and certification mechanisms and encourage framing capacity building through private sector participation. Learn more:

Social Enterprise
SOCIAL ENTERPRISE -A social enterprise is an establishment that applies commercial strategies to boost, enhance and achieve desired improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being—this may include maximizing social impact alongside profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form (depending on in which country the entity exists and the legal forms available) of a co-operative, mutual organization, a disregarded entity, a social business, a benefit corporation, a community interest company, a company limited by guarantee or a charity organization. They can also take more conventional structures. Learn more:

Social security
Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income. In the United States, this is usually called welfare or a social safety net, especially when talking about Canada and European countries.This policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Learn more:

SSA -Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an Indian Government programme . It’s aimed at the universalisation of elementary education "in a time bound manner", as mandated by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 (estimated to be 205 million children in 2001) is a constitutional right. The programme was pioneered by former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.This programme aims to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities to all children through provision of community -owned quality education in a mission mode. It is a response to the demand for quality education . Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat is a nationwide sub-programme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. Children who fail to read earlier lag behind in other subjects.The aim of the programme is to improve comprehensive early reading,writing and early mathematics programme for children in Classes I and II. Learn more:

SSC - Sector Skill Council are bodies led by the industry , who would be responsible for defining the skilling ,needs , concept, process , certification , accreditation of their respective industry sectors . The SSC advises the National Occupational Standards ( NOS ) and Qualification Packs ( QPs) for the job roles relevant to their industry and ensure that there are in accordance with the National Skills Qualification Framework ( NSQF ) . Hence they are tasked with developing a robust training delivery mechanism that follows international standards and quality parameters . As autonomous bodies , they front -end various activities and take measures to identify and close skills gaps.

SSDMs - At the state level, primary responsibility for Program delivery lies with the state governments. The State Skill Development Mission (SSDM ) is housed in the nodal department ,implementing the program in the state. The state mission supervises implementation of the Program at the district level, facilitates convergence with other departments, ensures preparation of the DSDP ( District And State Level Skill Development Plans ) for each district, and monitors state performance against SIG criteria.

SSOU -Symbiosis Open Education Society is taking the initiative of taking Skill India forward.It has pioneered Maharashtra’s first Skill Development University called the Symbiosis Skills and Open University at Kiwale, Pune. It has specialised laboratories, workshops and center of excellence having specialised skill training equipment and machines. The University will offer Certificates, Diplomas and Degree programs in high growth sectors such as Automobile, Construction, Mechatronics, Architecture, Retail, Ports & Terminal Management, Beauty & Wellness etc. with multi entry exit and credit banking options. The main aim of the University is to create ‘industry ready’ youth who can be gainfully employed upon completion of their courses.The innovative model of the University gives entry to all, enabling those from both the formal as well as informal systems to acquire education and skills. Learn more:

SSSC - The objective of setting up Sports Skill Council is to bring together the efforts of the Sports sector for employable workforce development and Institutional Capacity Building of the existing training providers. Sports, Physical Education, Fitness and Leisure Skill Council (SPEFL-SC) will balance the existing education system for the Sports and Physical Education in meeting the entire value chains requirements of appropriately trained manpower in quantity and quality across all levels on a sustained and evolving basis. To Develop a skills repository for the Sports Sector. Conduct extensive mappings for the Sports sector to recognise, initiate and address the skills gaps in the sector especially for the grassroots sports promotion which will supply medal prospects for the future. Establish a well structured sector specific Labour Market Information System (LMIS) which supports the skills training planning and execution.Develop opportunities for Training of Trainers in both the content and pedagogy for imparting the skills trainings in close coordination with employers.Quality Assurance:a) Develop and promote a standardized, output oriented and quality assured affiliation and accreditation process.b) Focus on improving the training delivery value chain, i.e training process, training of trainers, curriculum design, industry endorsement for certification etc.

Startup India
Startup India:Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong ecosystem that is conducive for the growth of startup businesses, to drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government through this initiative aims to empower startups to grow through innovation and design.Learn more:

STEM - Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), previously Science, Math, Engineering and Technology (SMET), is a term used to group together these academic disciplines. This term is typically used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns and immigration policy. Learn more:,_technology,_engineering,_and_mathematics

STRIVE - The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved two World Bank supported schemes Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP) and Skill Strengthening for Industrial Value Enhancement (STRIVE) to boost Skill India Mission. STRIVE scheme will motivate ITIs to improve their all around performance inclusive of apprenticeship by involving SMEs (Small Scale Enterprises), business association and industry clusters. It will develop robust mechanism for delivering quality skill development training by strengthening institutions- National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), State Skill Development Missions (SSDMs), Sector Skill Councils, ITIs and National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) etc. It will assist universalization of National Skills Qualification Framework (NSQF) including National Quality Assurance Framework ( NQAF ) across skill development schemes. It will provide required push to National Skill Development Mission 2015 and its various sub missions. It is also aligned to flagship Government programs such as Make in India and Swachhta Abhiyan. Learn more:

TVET - Stands for Technical and Vocational Education and Training .It is an International Educational term that is applied to certain post - school educational institutes . The UNESCO - UNEVOC organisation defines TVET as a term referring to those aspects of the education , the study of technologies and related sciences , and the acquisition of practical skills ,attitude , understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life . TVET provides job-oriented education and training and uses formal, non-formal and informal learning .TVET is recognised to be a crucial vehicle for social equity, inclusion and sustainable development . Learn more:

Takshashila Portal
Takshashila Portal is an initiative by NSDC under Skill India Mission. The portal is a committed platform towards management of trainers and assessors life-cycle. The portal would function as the central repository of information concerning development of quality Trainers and Assessors through Sector Skill Councils.Benefits of the portal : Single window access to the information related to trainers’ and assessors’ training calendar, certification process, competency enhancement and learning resources enhance transparency in trainers’ and assessors’ training and certification process highlights SSCs performance in training and certifying trainers and assessors – creating a pool of qualified resources for Skill India Mission Defined entry level requirements for trainers and assessors Enhancing efficiency for the involved stakeholders – SSCs, TPs, Trainers, Assessors, NSDC . Learn more:

Temp Employee
Temp Employee -Temporary employees are hired to assist employers to meet business demands yet allow the employer to avoid the cost of hiring a regular employee. Sometimes, it is the expectation of the employer that if the temporary employee is successful, the employer will hire the temporary employee.Most frequently, though, hiring temporary employees serves a business purpose for the company and the objective is to hire temps rather than taking on the cost of a regular employee. Learn more:

THSC - Tourism & Hospitality Skill Council ( THSC), is a Not-for-Profit Organization, registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. The Council has been promoted by Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Industry Members representing the sector, financially supported by NSDC. The Sector Skill Council is a national level organization with a Government-Industry interface and partnership with stakeholders from industry, labour as well as the academia. It fulfils its purpose essentially when the lead is taken by Industry stakeholders.Tourism and Hospitality Skill Council (THSC) which is formed 'By the Industry and For the Industry' to tackle the skilling of large manpower to fulfill the industry requirement plays a crucial role in bridging this ever-growing gap. THSC is mandated to create a robust and sustainable eco-system for skill development in the industry. Learn more:

TITP -The Technical Intern Training Program was created to enhance the economic development of countries participating in the program through the generation of new employment opportunities. This is achieved through the internship program (which can be anywhere from one year to a maximum of 5 years) and through On-the- Job Training (OJT). Course Curriculum includes Japanese language training, Japanese culture training, and sector-specific training as per Japanese requirements.The TITP offers certification on successful completion.Bilateral ties between India and Japan are further strengthened with Technical Intern Training Programme (TITP), an initiative by the Government of Japan to provide technical training to youth from India and other countries. Under this program trainees acquire and master skills of the Japanese industries and professions for a maximum of 5 years.TITP is an extremely prestigious project and their successful placement is a significant achievement for India. Learn more:

TOT - Training of Trainers is a high-level professional learning process for qualified trainers who will be providing training and capacity-building assistance for evidence-based program (EBP) implementation.he TOT engages participants in a comprehensive, multi-day distributive learning process that builds the knowledge and skills required to effectively train educators to deliver evidence-based HIV, STD and/or pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents. This rigorous 4-day workshop includes advanced training on the science of learning, intensive coaching on effective strategies for engaging adult learners, and targeted instruction and practice in training others to deliver a specific curriculum.

Trainee - A person undergoing training for a particular job or profession. Trainee is commonly known as an individual taking part in a trainee program or a graduate program within a company after having graduated from university or college.A trainee is an official employee of the firm that is being trained to the job he/she was originally hired for.Trainee programs and graduate programs are arranged by private companies and public sector employers where the trainee is offered the possibility to take part 6 to 20 months training programs.During the duration of these programs the trainee is expected to receive a salary as well as is expected to have a full-time employment awaiting in the company when the program is over.The trainee programs most often consist of a combination of theory and practice and is aimed at having the trainee to learn the company from the ground up.

TSC - Textile Sector Skill Council is a non-profit organisation, having license under Section 8 (1) of the Companies Act, 2013 registered under Companies Act 2013. Textile Sector Skill Council has been recognised by National Skill Development Corporation, founded by Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India. TSC will develop a skilled workforce for the textile industry through setting curriculum for training and accreditation of trade competency. National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) approved Textile Sector Skill Council (TSC) for development of skill in spinning, weaving, processing and handloom sectors of the textile industry. TSC has been implementing Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) projects in different locations in India to recognize informal learning in textile and handloom industry. Learn more:

TSSC - The Telecom Sector Skill Council (TSSC) is committed to develop world class skilled manpower for the Indian Telecom industry. Founded in 2013, TSSC is a non profit organization set up with the financial support of NSDC through Ministry of Finance, Government of India and Industry Associations. It strives to create a viable ecosystem by narrowing the existing gap between demand and supply of skills, increased collaboration between the three primary stakeholders i.e. HR, Industry and academia, facilitating Training the Trainer, developing necessary frameworks for standards, curriculum and quality assurance at all levels in vocational / technical programs to meet the needs of the industry and taking part in regional and international vocational telecom sector development initiatives. Learn more:

TURNOVER - Turnover is an accounting term that calculates how quickly a business collects cash from accounts receivable or how fast the company sells its inventory.In the investment industry, turnover is defined as the percentage of a portfolio that is sold in a particular month or year. A quick turnover rate generates more commissions for trades placed by a broker.

TVET - Stands for Technical and Vocational Education and Training .It is an International Educational term that is applied to certain post - school educational institutes . The UNESCO - UNEVOC organisation defines TVET as a term referring to those aspects of the education , the study of technologies and related sciences , and the acquisition of practical skills ,attitude , understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life .

UKIERI - UK India Education Research Initiative started in April 2006 with the goal of enhancing educational links between India and the UK. It has been identified as a key multi stakeholder programme that has strengthened the educational relations between the two countries and has been successful in covering all segments of the education sector. The main aim of Phase 1 (2006- 2011) of the programme was to establish UKIERI as a framework to enable a step-change in the UK-India relationship on education and research. Phase 2 (2011-2016) focused on thematic areas agreed by both countries which included Leadership Development, Innovation Partnerships, Skills Development and Enhancing Mobility. Learn more:

UNDEREMPLOYMENT - Underemployment is the under-use of a worker due to a job that does not use the worker's skills, or is part time, or leaves the worker idle.[2] Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring full-time work, and overqualification, where the employee has education, experience, or skills beyond the requirements of the job.Underemployment is a significant cause of poverty: although the worker may be able to find part-time work, the part-time pay may not be sufficient for basic needs. Underemployment is a problem particularly in developing countries, where the unemployment rate is often quite low, as most workers are doing subsistence work or occasional part-time jobs. Learn more:

UNDP - The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network. It’s aim is to eradicate poverty and reduce inequalities through the sustainable development of nations.It provides expert advice, training and gives support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. It promotes technical and investment cooperation among nations. The status of UNDP is that of an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly. UNDP also encourages the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women in all of its programmes. Additionally, the UNDP works internationally to help countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). UNDP works with nations on their own solutions to global and national development challenges.

Unemployment or joblessness is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.The state of being without any work for an educated person, for earning one's livelihood is meant by unemployment. Economists distinguish between various overlapping types of and theories of unemployment.Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequent measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the labor force. Learn more:

UNESCO - UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training is one of seven UNESCO institutes and centres working in the field of education. The International Centre is located at the United Nations Campus in Bonn, Germany and is financed by both UNESCO and the German government. UNESCO-UNEVOC is the International Centre for connecting UNESCO Member States worldwide to develop and strengthen technical and vocational education and training (TVET). The Centre works in the context of UNESCO’s mandate for Education for All and Education for Sustainable Development. The Centre's official mission is to assist Member States to strengthen and upgrade their TVET systems to achieve the "access for all, high quality, relevant and effective programmes and learning opportunities throughout life”.

UNICEF - The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II.In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long- term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere.UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, and educational supplies. Learn more:

UNIDO -The United Nations Industrial Development Organization is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. UNIDO was established as a UN programme in 1966 with headquarters in Vienna, Austria and became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1985.The Organization's main objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and the promotion of international industrial cooperation.UNIDO recognizes that competitive and environmentally sustainable industry has a vital role to play in accelerating economic growth, reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Learn more:

VE - Vocational education prepares people to work in various jobs, such as a trade, a craft, or as a technician. Vocational education is sometimes referred to as career education or technical education. A vocational school is a type of educational institution specifically designed to provide vocational education. Vocational education can begin at the post-secondary, further education, and higher education level; and can interact with the apprenticeship system. At the post-secondary level, vocational education is often provided by highly specialized trade, Technical schools, community colleges, Institutes of technology / Polytechnic Institutes. Formerly almost all vocational education took place in the classroom, or on the job site, with students learning trade skills and trade theory from certified professors or established professionals. However, online vocational education has grown in popularity, and made it easier than ever for students to learn various trade skills and soft skills from established professionals in the industry.

VET - Vocational education or Vocational Education and Training (VET), also called Career and Technical Education (CTE), grooms learners for jobs that are based in manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic and totally related to a specific trade, occupation or vocation, hence the term, in which the learner participates. It is sometimes cited as technical education, as the learner directly develops expertise in a particular group of techniques or technology.Vocational Education and Training (VET) is both education and training that focuses on providing skills for work. VET provides the skills to help people to:join the workforce for the first time,rejoin the workforce after a break,upgrade skills in their chosen field, move into a different career.

VTIP - The joint team of the World Bank and the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MoSD&E) undertook the Tenth Joint Review Mission (JRM) of the Vocational Training Improvement Project (VTIP) during May 28 - June 12, 2015. The aim of the Vocational Training Improvement Project for India is to boost the employment outcomes of graduates from the vocational training system, by making the design and delivery of training more demand responsive. Project implementation was initially delayed due to: (i) creating shared understanding among all key stakeholders on and implementation of reforms introduced by the project took time; (ii) due to delays in startup about 50 percent of the institutions have got about three years of implementation support and full five year implementation period will equip them to obtain National Council of Vocational Training (NCVT) affiliation and accreditation ; (iii) initial delays in funds flow from the state finance departments to the line departments and capacity constraints slowed down the pace of implementation. However, most of the barriers hindering implementation have now been overcome. Hence, implementation during the extended period is not likely to be affected by the above implementation barriers, although some of the capacity challenges remain and are being addressed. No additional financing is requested.

WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)-WASH (or Watsan, WaSH) is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene". Universal, affordable and sustainable access to WASH is a key public health issue within international development and is the focus of Sustainable Development Goal 6. Attention to WASH can improve health, life expectancy, student learning, gender equality, and other important issues of international development. Access to WASH includes safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene education. This can reduce illness and death, and also reduce poverty and improve socio-economic development. Learn more:

White collar
White collar - the white-collar worker typically performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk.A salaried professional or an educated worker who performs semi-professional office, administrative, and sales-coordination tasks, as opposed to a blue-collar worker, whose job requires manual labor Learn more:

Work permit
A work permit is the permission to take a job within a foreign country. It may also be a permit given to minors allowing them to work legally under child labor laws. Within an industry, a work permit may be required to execute certain functions within a factory outside normal operational tasks (such as maintenance tasks) — in some places they might be called Permit to Work (PTW). Learn more:

Work visa
Work visa -Temporary worker visas are for persons who want to enter the United States for employment lasting a fixed period of time, and are not considered permanent or indefinite. Each of these visas requires the prospective employer to first file a petition with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services ( USCIS). An approved petition is required to apply for a work visa. Learn more:

Workforce development
Workforce development attempts to enhance a region's economic stability and prosperity by focusing on people rather than businesses. It essentially develops a human-resources strategy. Workforce development has evolved from a problem-focused approach, addressing issues such as low-skilled workers or the need for more employees in a particular industry, to a holistic approach considering participants' many barriers and the overall needs of the region. Learn more:
There are currently 195 names in this directory
There are currently 195 names in this directory