Over the past few years, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) has been implementing several schemes under the Skill India initiative. Some of the government schemes and initiatives providing skill training to India’s youth are PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana), JSS (Jan Shikshan Sansthan Scheme), NAPS (National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme), etc.
PMKVY (Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana): PMKVY has two training components such as Short-Term Training (STT) and Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL).
JSS (Jan Shikshan Sansthan Scheme): This scheme aims to provide vocational skills to the ones who could not finish schooling due to few circumstances and wish to be trained to improve the family income through self-employment. The priority groups for this scheme are women, SCs, STs, minorities, Divyangjan, and other backward sections of the society. The JSSs work at the beneficiaries with minimum infrastructure and resources.
NAPS (National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme): This scheme aims to promote apprenticeship training and increase the opportunities for the apprentices by providing financial support to industrial establishments which are undertaking apprenticeship programs under The Apprenticeship Act 1961.
CTS (Craftsmen Training Scheme): This scheme aims to provide long-term training in 143 trades through 14,417 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) across the country.
Evaluation report on the schemes
PMKVY: As per the third-party Evaluation of PMKVY 2.0 (2016-20), it was found that the average monthly income of PMKVY trained individuals was 15% higher than the comparison group. The percentage of average monthly income is different from the respondents who had undertaken RPL with those who had not undertaken it. Moreover, 76% of the candidates who had acknowledged that after training have a better chance of getting employment.
Also Read: The evolution of PMKVY – https://www.nationalskillsnetwork.in/the-evolution-of-pmkvy-pradhan-mantri-kaushal-vikas-yojana/
JSS: According to the third-party evaluation report of the scheme, it is observed that as an impact of the training program conducted at JSSs, the self employment and the private job has become clear. The same report has mentioned that 77.05% of the trainees have undergone occupational shifts which shows that there is a positive impact of the scheme on the livelihood options of the beneficiaries.
CTS: The final report of Tracer Study of ITI Graduates shows that 63.5% of total ITI pass-outs got employed and 36.4% remained unemployed. However, the figures for SCs (65%) and STs (69.8%) were higher than the percentage of total pass-outs in self and wage employed.
Also, MSDE initiated various convergence efforts across the skill ecosystem to bring a common set of rules and guidelines to bring skill training for an apprenticeship, employment in action across the country that could follow a common set of rules in every area of skill development. Some of the key measures taken in this regard are –
- The introduction of the Common Cost Norms
- The creation of a National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF)
This information was given by the Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Shri Rajeev Chandrasekhar in a written reply in the Lok Sabha recently.